Parasellar tumors that extend far laterally beyond the internal carotid artery or that are fibrous and adhere firmly to critical structures are difficult to remove totally via the endoscopic transsphenoidal approach alone. In such cases, a combined transsphenoidal-transcranial approach is effective to achieve maximal resection in a single stage. In this paper, a new minimally invasive surgical technique for complicated parasellar lesions, a fully endoscopic combined transsphenoidal–supraorbital keyhole approach, is presented.
METHODS A retrospective review of patients who had been treated via a fully endoscopic combined transsphenoidal– supraorbital keyhole approach for complicated parasellar lesions was performed. The data for resection rate, perioperative mortality and morbidity, and postoperative outcomes were analyzed.
RESULTS A total of 12 fully endoscopic combined transsphenoidal–supraorbital keyhole approaches were performed from March 2013 to February 2016; 10 were for pituitary adenomas and 2 were for craniopharyngiomas. Gross-total resection or near-total resection was achieved in 7 of 12 cases. Among the 11 patients who had presented with preoperative visual disturbances, 7 had visual improvement. However, 1 patient showed deterioration in visual function. No patient experienced postoperative hemorrhage, needed additional surgical treatment, or had postoperative CSF leakage.
CONCLUSIONS In the combined transsphenoidal and transcranial approach, safe and effective cooperative manipulation with 2 surgical corridors can be performed for complicated parasellar lesions. The goal of this procedure is not to achieve gross-total resection, but to achieve safe resection. Moreover, this new surgical approach offers neurosurgeons a simpler operative field with less invasiveness than the conventional microscopic combined approach. The fully endoscopic combined endonasal–supraorbital keyhole approach is an efficacious procedure for complicated parasellar lesions with acceptable results.
To perform planned subtotal resection followed by gamma knife surgery (GKRS) in a series of patients with large vestibular schwannoma (VS), aiming at an optimal functional outcome for facial and cochlear nerves.
Methods Patient characteristics, surgical and dosimetric features, and outcome were collected prospectively at the time of treatment and during the follow-up.
Results A consecutive series of 32 patients was treated between July 2010 and June 2016. Mean follow-up after surgery was 29 months (median 24, range 4–78). Mean presurgical tumor volume was 12.5 cm3 (range 1.47–34.9). Postoperative status showed normal facial nerve function (House– Brackmann I) in all patients. In a subgroup of 17 patients with serviceable hearing before surgery and in which cochlear nerve preservation was attempted at surgery, 16 (94.1%) retained serviceable hearing. Among them, 13 had normal hearing (Gardner–Robertson class 1) before surgery, and 10 (76.9%) retained normal hearing after surgery. Mean duration between surgery and GKRS was 6.3 months (range 3.8–13.9). Mean tumor volume at GKRS was 3.5 cm3 (range 0.5–12.8), corresponding to mean residual volume of 29.4% (range 6– 46.7) of the preoperative volume. Mean marginal dose was 12 Gy (range 11–12). Mean follow-up after GKRS was 24 months (range 3–60). Following GKRS, there were no new neurological deficits, with facial and hearing functions remaining identical to those after surgery in all patients. Three patients presented with continuous growth after GKRS, were considered failures, and benefited from the same combined approach a second time.
Conclusion Our data suggest that large VS management, with planned subtotal resection followed by GKRS, might yield an excellent clinical outcome, allowing the normal facial nerve and a high level of cochlear nerve functions to be retained. Our functional results with this approach in large VS are comparable with those obtained with GKRS alone in small- and medium-sized VS. Longer term follow-up is necessary to fully evaluate this approach, especially regarding tumor control.
Lesions of the ventrolateral brainstem, clivus, and cerebellopontine angle pose significant challenges for surgeons, and the rate of morbidity and mortality from classic neurosurgical approaches has proven to be unacceptably high.
Early attempts to expose this region consisted primarily of an extended suboccipital craniectomy, with opening of the tentorium and ligation of the sigmoid sinus for additional exposure. During the 1960s, technological innovations including the surgical microscope and the pneumatic drill allowed surgeons to gain additional exposure by removing more bone from the base of the skull. This let surgeons define combined infra- and supratentorial approaches, which rely less on brain retraction to resect these difficult tumors successfully.
These approaches rely on a combined posterior mastoid approach with an anterior petrosectomy. The evolution of this approach is discussed in this paper.
Although they provide excellent ventral and lateral exposure of the brainstem, petrosal approaches to brainstem cavernous malformations (CMs) are infrequently reported.
Methods. The authors reviewed their experience with petrosal approaches to brainstem CMs in combination with a comprehensive review of the literature to elucidate resection rates, complication rates, and outcomes.
Results. Including their own results, the authors found 65 cases in 20 reports of brainstem CMs treated with petrosal approaches. The specific approaches were posterior petrosal in 37 cases (57%), anterior petrosal in 17 (26%), extended posterior petrosal in 10 (15%), and a combined petrosal approach in 1 case (2%). For 50 cases in 16 reports with detailed outcome information, the overall complete resection rate was 90%, with early postoperative morbidity reported in 30% of cases and permanent morbidity in 14%. The rate of CSF leakage was 6%.
Conclusions. The versatile petrosal approaches to brainstem CMs are associated with good outcomes and an acceptable morbidity rate. More expansive lesions can be approached using a combination of the standard anterior and posterior petrosal approach, preserving hearing and avoiding the greater complication rates associated with extended posterior petrosal approaches.
Minim Invas Neurosurg 2009;52: 281 – 286. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0029-1242776
Extended endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approaches (extended EETA) are increasingly being explored for lesions around the sella and the frontal skull base. These approaches, however, require significant surgical expertise and training that can only be obtained in high-volume centers and therefore these approaches are not generalizable to the whole neurosurgical community. Also, these approaches require significant skull base destruction and reconstruction, which comes with a high risk of CSF fistulas.
The aim of this article is to describe a combined supraorbital keyhole-endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach as an alternative surgical strategy to the extended EETA that is easier to perform and that leaves the skull base anatomy more intact.
Technique: Two fairly common neurosurgical approaches, the supraorbital keyhole approach and the endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach, are combined into a single-stage or two-stage surgical procedure. The procedure can be performed as a single neurosurgeon-serial approach and as a two neurosurgeon-parallel simultaneous approach. The philosophy and technique of this combined approach will be described.
Conclusion: The combined supraorbital keyhole-EETA approach can be used without extra surgical training or expertise and with preservation of skull base anatomy for sellar, perisellar and frontal skull base tumors.
Large lumbosacral disc herniations causing bi-radicular symptoms are very rare clinical entities and may present a surgical challenge. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of the simply modified combined lateral and interlaminar approach for the treatment of these unique disc herniations. Between 2000 and 2005, 18 patients with bi-radicular symptoms secondary to large disc herniations of the lumbar spine underwent surgery. There were 13 men and five women, ranging in age between 25 and 64 years (mean 54.3 years). In this three-step operation, the osseous areas that are not essential for the facet joint were removed and both upper and lower nerve roots were decompressed. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications, except transient dysesthesia in one (5.5%) patient. The mean follow-up period was 62.6 months (range 36–96 months). At the latest follow-up examination, outcomes using the Macnab classification were excellent in 13 patients (72.2 %), good in four (22.2%) and fair in one (5.5%). Recurrent disc herniations and/or instability, either symptomatic or radiographic, have not occurred as a result of the procedure during the follow-up period. The combined approach described here is a safe and effective procedure in the surgical treatment of this subtype of disc herniations with bi-radicular involvement. It permits optimum decompression of both nerve roots, avoiding the risk of secondary spinal instability.
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