The Angiographic and Clinical Follow-up Outcomes of the Wide-Necked and Complex Intracranial Aneurysms Treated With LVIS EVO–Assisted Coiling

Neurosurgery 92:827–836, 2023

The Low Profile Visible Intraluminal Support EVO (LVIS EVO) is a selfexpandable braided stent, which was recently introduced for the treatment of intracranial aneurysms. Full visibility of the stent and a relatively high metal coverage ratio are the unique features of the LVIS EVO.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the safety, efficacy, and midterm durability of LVIS EVO stentassisted coiling for the treatment of wide-necked intracranial aneurysms.

METHODS: The endovascular databases were reviewed to identify patients treated with LVIS EVO–assisted coiling. The technical success and immediate clinical/angiographic outcomes were assessed. Periprocedural and delayed complications were evaluated. The follow-up angiographic/clinical outcomes were investigated. The preprocedural/followup neurological statuses were assessed with the modified Rankin Scale.

RESULTS: One hundred three aneurysms in 103 patients (63 females) with a mean age of 54.9 ± 11.3 years were included. The mean maximum sac diameter was 6.2 ± 2.9 mm. The procedural technical success rate was 100%. Immediate postprocedural angiography showed complete occlusion in 77.7%. The mean duration of the angiographic follow-up was 8.8 ± 3.6 months. Follow-up angiography showed complete aneurysm occlusion in 89% of the 82 patients with angiographic follow-up. Recanalization was observed in 7.3% of 82 patients. Two patients (2.4%) required retreatment. In addition, 8.7% of the patients had at least 1 complication, and 2.9% of the patients developed a permanent morbidity. All patients had mRS scores ≤2.

CONCLUSION: The results of this study demonstrate that SAC with LVIS EVO is a relatively safe, efficient, and durable treatment for wide-necked and complex intracranial aneurysms.

Is 3 years adequate for tracking completely occluded coiled aneurysms?

J Neurosurg 133:758–764, 2020

The authors conducted a study to ascertain the long-term durability of coiled aneurysms completely occluded at 36 months’ follow-up given the potential for delayed recanalization.

METHODS In this retrospective review, the authors examined 299 patients with 339 aneurysms, all shown to be completely occluded at 36 months on follow-up images obtained between 2011 and 2013. Medical records and radiological data acquired during the extended monitoring period (mean 74.3 ± 22.5 months) were retrieved, and the authors analyzed the incidence of (including mean annual risk) and risk factors for delayed recanalization.

RESULTS A total of 5 coiled aneurysms (1.5%) occluded completely at 36 months showed recanalization (0.46% per aneurysm-year) during the long-term surveillance period (1081.9 aneurysm-years), 2 surfacing within 60 months and 3 developing thereafter. Four showed minor recanalization, with only one instance of major recanalization. The latter involved the posterior communicating artery as an apparent de novo lesion, arising at the neck of a firmly coiled sac, and was unrelated to coil compaction or growth. Additional embolization was undertaken. In a multivariate analysis, a second embolization for a recurrent aneurysm (HR = 22.088, p = 0.003) independently correlated with delayed recanalization.

CONCLUSIONS Almost all coiled aneurysms (98.5%) showing complete occlusion at 36 months postembolization proved to be stable during extended observation. However, recurrent aneurysms were predisposed to delayed recanalization. Given the low probability yet seriousness of delayed recanalization and the possibility of de novo aneurysm formation, careful monitoring may be still considered in this setting but at less frequent intervals beyond 36 months.

Endovascular and Surgical Treatment of Internal Carotid Bifurcation Aneurysms: Comparison of Results, Outcome, and Mid-Term Follow-up

Categorization of aneurysms by their origin and projection

Neurosurgery 76:540–551, 2015

Aneurysms of the internal carotid artery (ICA) bifurcation are rare, and no studies have compared patient outcomes after endovascular vs surgical treatment.

OBJECTIVE: To report the safety, efficacy, and follow-up outcome of these 2 treatment options for patients with ICA bifurcation aneurysms.

METHODS: Patient and aneurysm characteristics, treatment results, and follow-up outcomes (at 30 months) were analyzed from patient records and review of imaging findings.

RESULTS: A total of 58 patients with ICA bifurcation aneurysms were treated. By interdisciplinary consensus, 30 aneurysms were assigned for coiling and 28 for clipping. Patients who underwent surgical clipping were younger and had larger aneurysms. More patients were assigned to coiling if their aneurysms originated only from the ICA bifurcation or projected superiorly. For the combined angiographic endpoint, complete and nearly complete occlusion (Raymond-Roy I + II), similar rates of 96% (coiling) or 100% (clipping) could be achieved. Raymond-Roy I occlusion occurred more often after clipping (79% vs 41% coiling). Follow-up of the endovascular group showed minor recanalization of the aneurysm neck (Raymond-Roy II) in 42%. One patient (4%) showed a major recanalization (Raymond-Roy III) and needed re-treatment. For incidental findings, no bleeding complications or new persistent neurological deficits occurred during follow-up.

CONCLUSION: Treatment of ICA bifurcation aneurysms after interdisciplinary assignment to clipping or coiling is effective and safe. Despite significantly more minor recanalizations after coiling, the re-treatment rate was very low, and no bleeding was observed during follow-up. Multivariate analysis revealed that origin only from the ICA bifurcation was an independent predictor of aneurysm recanalization after endovascular treatment.

Long-term Results of Endonasal Endoscopic Transsphenoidal Resection of Nonfunctioning Pituitary Macroadenomas

Results non-functioning macroadenomas

Neurosurgery 76:42–53, 2015

Several studies report early results of endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery; however, none discuss long-term outcome measures such as tumor recurrence rates and the need for additional surgical procedures.

OBJECTIVE: To discuss the long-term outcomes after endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery for nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenomas.

METHODS: This is a retrospective study. Patients were included only if they had at least 5 years of clinical and imaging follow-up after surgery.

RESULTS: Eighty patients met the study criteria. Grossly complete resection was achieved in 71% of patients. Knosp grade 0 to 2 tumors and tumor with volumes ,10 cm3 were significantly more likely to have received a grossly complete resection. There were 7 recurrences (12%) in patients who had received grossly complete resections, with a mean time to recurrence of 53 months. Among the 23 patients who had subtotal resections, 11 (61%) progressed radiographically, and 3 (17%) had symptomatic progression. Knosp score, surgical and radiographic evidence of invasion, and preoperative visual deficits were predictive of recurrence in a univariate analysis, but Knosp grade was the only independent predictor in a multivariate analysis. Kaplan-Meier analysis projected a 10-year progression-free survival rate of 80% and 21% for patients with gross total resections and subtotal resections, respectively.

CONCLUSION: At the long-term follow-up, 12% of patients had recurrent tumors after grossly complete resection. Recurrent or residual tumors were treated with either repeat surgery or Gamma Knife radiosurgery. Rates of complete resection, postoperative surgical and endocrinological complications, and additional surgical procedures are similar to previously published reports after microscopic transsphenoidal surgery.

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