Patient outcomes after circumferential minimally invasive surgery compared with those of open correction for adult spinal deformity

J Neurosurg Spine 36:203–214, 2022

Circumferential minimally invasive spine surgery (cMIS) for adult scoliosis has become more advanced and powerful, but direct comparison with traditional open correction using prospectively collected data is limited. The authors performed a retrospective review of prospectively collected, multicenter adult spinal deformity data. The authors directly compared cMIS for adult scoliosis with open correction in propensity-matched cohorts using health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) measures and surgical parameters.

METHODS Data from a prospective, multicenter adult spinal deformity database were retrospectively reviewed. Inclusion criteria were age > 18 years, minimum 1-year follow-up, and one of the following characteristics: pelvic tilt (PT) > 25 , pelvic incidence minus lumbar lordosis (PI-LL) > 10 , Cobb angle > 20 , or sagittal vertical axis (SVA) > 5 cm. Patients were categorized as undergoing cMIS (percutaneous screws with minimally invasive anterior interbody fusion) or open correction (traditional open deformity correction). Propensity matching was used to create two equal groups and to control for age, BMI, preoperative PI-LL, pelvic incidence (PI), T1 pelvic angle (T1PA), SVA, PT, and number of posterior levels fused.

RESULTS A total of 154 patients (77 underwent open procedures and 77 underwent cMIS) were included after matching for age, BMI, PI-LL (mean 15  vs 17 , respectively), PI (54  vs 54 ), T1PA (21  vs 22 ), and mean number of levels fused (6.3 vs 6). Patients who underwent three-column osteotomy were excluded. Follow-up was 1 year for all patients. Postoperative Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) (p = 0.50), Scoliosis Research Society–total (p = 0.45), and EQ-5D (p = 0.33) scores were not different between cMIS and open patients. Maximum Cobb angles were similar for open and cMIS basepatients at baseline (25.9  vs 26.3 , p = 0.85) and at 1 year postoperation (15.0  vs 17.5 , p = 0.17). In total, 58.3% of open patients and 64.4% of cMIS patients (p = 0.31) reached the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) in ODI at 1 year. At 1 year, no differences were observed in terms of PI-LL (p = 0.71), SVA (p = 0.46), PT (p = 0.9), or Cobb angle (p = 0.20). Open patients had greater estimated blood loss compared with cMIS patients (1.36 L vs 0.524 L, p < 0.05) and fewer levels of interbody fusion (1.87 vs 3.46, p < 0.05), but shorter operative times (356 minutes vs 452 minutes, p = 0.003). Revision surgery rates between the two cohorts were similar (p = 0.97).

CONCLUSIONS When cMIS was compared with open adult scoliosis correction with propensity matching, HRQOL improvement, spinopelvic parameters, revision surgery rates, and proportions of patients who reached MCID were similar between cohorts. However, well-selected cMIS patients had less blood loss, comparable results, and longer operative times in comparison with open patients.



Sagittal radiographic parameters demonstrate weak correlations with pretreatment patient-reported health-related quality of life measures in symptomatic de novo degenerative lumbar scoliosis

J Neurosurg Spine 28:573–580, 2018

Previous studies have demonstrated that among patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD), sagittal plane malalignment is poorly tolerated and correlates with suboptimal patient-reported health-related quality of life (HRQOL). These studies included a broad range of radiographic abnormalities and various types of ASD. However, the clinical and radiographic characteristics of de novo degenerative lumbar scoliosis (DNDLS), a subtype of ASD, may influence previously reported correlation strengths. The aim of this study was to correlate sagittal radiographic parameters with pretreatment HRQOL in patients with symptomatic DNDLS.

METHODS In this multicenter retrospective study of prospectively collected data, 74 patients with symptomatic DNDLS were enrolled based on anteroposterior and lateral 36-inch standing radiographs. Measurements included Cobb angle, coronal imbalance, pelvic incidence (PI), pelvic tilt (PT), lumbar lordosis (LL), sagittal vertical axis (SVA), thoracic kyphosis, pelvic incidence minus lumbar lordosis (PI-LL), T1-pelvic angle, and global tilt. HRQOL questionnaires included the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Scoliosis Research Society (SRS-22r), 36-item Short-Form Health Survey, and numeric rating scale (NRS) for back and leg pain. Correlations between radiographic parameters and HRQOL were assessed. Finally, HRQOL and increasing severity of sagittal modifiers (SVA, PI-LL, and PT) were evaluated.

RESULTS Weak correlations were found between SVA and ODI (r = 0.296, p < 0.05) and PT with NRS back pain and the SRS pain domain (r = -0.260, p < 0.05, and r = 0.282, p < 0.05, respectively). Other sagittal radiographic parameters did not show any significant correlation with HRQOL. No significant differences in HRQOL were found concerning the increasing severity of PT, PI-LL, and SVA.

CONCLUSIONS While DNDLS is a severe disabling condition, no noteworthy association between clinical and sagittal radiographic parameters was found through this study, demonstrating that sagittal radiographic parameters should not be considered the unique predictor of pretreatment suboptimal health status in this specific group of patients. Future studies addressing classification and treatment algorithms will have to take into account the existing subgroups of ASD.

Cervical spine alignment, sagittal deformity, and clinical implications

cervical malalignement

This paper is a narrative review of normal cervical alignment, methods for quantifying alignment, and how alignment is associated with cervical deformity, myelopathy, and adjacent-segment disease (ASD), with discussions of health-related quality of life (HRQOL).

Popular methods currently used to quantify cervical alignment are discussed including cervical lordosis, sagittal vertical axis, and horizontal gaze with the chin-brow to vertical angle.

Cervical deformity is examined in detail as deformities localized to the cervical spine affect, and are affected by, other parameters of the spine in preserving global sagittal alignment. An evolving trend is defining cervical sagittal alignment.

Evidence from a few recent studies suggests correlations between radiographic parameters in the cervical spine and HRQOL. Analysis of the cervical regional alignment with respect to overall spinal pelvic alignment is critical. The article details mechanisms by which cervical kyphotic deformity potentially leads to ASD and discusses previous studies that suggest how postoperative sagittal malalignment may promote ASD.

Further clinical studies are needed to explore the relationship of cervical malalignment and the development of ASD. Sagittal alignment of the cervical spine may play a substantial role in the development of cervical myelopathy as cervical deformity can lead to spinal cord compression and cord tension. Surgical correction of cervical myelopathy should always take into consideration cervical sagittal alignment, as decompression alone may not decrease cord tension induced by kyphosis. Awareness of the development of postlaminectomy kyphosis is critical as it relates to cervical myelopathy.

The future direction of cervical deformity correction should include a comprehensive approach in assessing global cervicalpelvic relationships. Just as understanding pelvic incidence as it relates to lumbar lordosis was crucial in building our knowledge of thoracolumbar deformities, T-1 incidence and cervical sagittal balance can further our understanding of cervical deformities. Other important parameters that account for the cervical-pelvic relationship are surveyed in detail, and it is recognized that all such parameters need to be validated in studies that correlate HRQOL outcomes following cervical deformity correction.

Cognitive Functioning and Health-Related Quality of Life 1 Year After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Preoperative Comatose Patients (Hunt and Hess Grade V Patients)

DOI: 10.1227/01.NEU.0000365364.87303.AC

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine cognitive functioning and health related quality of life one year after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in preoperative comatose patients.

METHODS: Patients were investigated for one year using a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery and two HRQOL questionnaires.

RESULTS: Thirty-five of 70 patients survived the bleed, and 26 underwent neuropsychological testing. Two distinct patient groups emerged; one (n = 14) with good cognitive function, and the other (n = 12) with poor cognitive and motor function. Patients performing poorly were older (p = 0.04), had fewer years of education, (p = 0.005) larger preoperative ventricular scores, and were more often shunted (p = 0.02). There were also differences between the two groups in the Glasgow Outcome Scale (p = 0.001), modified Rankin Scale (p = 0.001), and employment status. HRQOL was more reduced in patients with poor cognitive function.

CONCLUSION: A high fraction of survivors among preoperative comatose aneurysmal SAH patients (Hunt and Hess grade V patients) recover to a good physical and cognitive function.