Ultrasonographic features of focal cortical dysplasia and their relevance for epilepsy surgery

Neurosurg Focus 45 (3):E5, 2018

Surgery has proven to be the best therapeutic option for drug-refractory cases of focal cortical dysplasia (FCD)–associated epilepsy. Seizure outcome primarily depends on the completeness of resection, rendering the intraoperative FCD identification and delineation particularly important. This study aims to assess the diagnostic yield of intraoperative ultrasound (IOUS) in surgery for FCD-associated drug-refractory epilepsy.

METHODS The authors prospectively enrolled 15 consecutive patients with drug-refractory epilepsy who underwent an IOUS-assisted microsurgical resection of a radiologically suspected FCD between January 2013 and July 2016. The findings of IOUS were compared with those of presurgical MRI postprocessing and the sonographic characteristics were analyzed in relation to the histopathological findings. The authors investigated the added value of IOUS in achieving completeness of resection and improving postsurgical seizure outcome.

RESULTS The neurosurgeon was able to identify the dysplastic tissue by IOUS in all cases. The visualization of FCD type I was more challenging compared to FCD II and the demarcation of its borders was less clear. Postsurgical MRI showed residual dysplasia in 2 of the 3 patients with FCD type I. In all FCD type II cases, IOUS allowed for a clear intraoperative visualization and demarcation, strongly correlating with presurgical MRI postprocessing. Postsurgical MRI confirmed complete resection in all FCD type II cases. Sonographic features correlated with the histopathological classification of dysplasia (sonographic abnormalities increase continuously in the following order: FCD IA/IB, FCD IC, FCD IIA, FCD IIB). In 1 patient with IOUS features atypical for FCD, histopathological investigation showed nonspecific gliosis.

CONCLUSIONS Morphological features of FCD, as identified by IOUS, correlate well with advanced presurgical imaging. The resolution of IOUS was superior to MRI in all FCD types. The appreciation of distinct sonographic features on IOUS allows the intraoperative differentiation between FCD and non-FCD lesions as well as the discrimination of different histological subtypes of FCD. Sonographic demarcation depends on the underlying degree of dysplasia. IOUS allows for more tailored resections by facilitating the delineation of the dysplastic tissue.

Ultrasound-guided brain surgery: echographic visibility of different pathologies and surgical applications in neurosurgical routine

Acta Neurochirurgica (2018) 160:1175–1185

The use of intraoperative ultrasound (iUS) has increased in the last 15 years becoming a standard tool in many neurosurgical centers. Our aim was to assess the utility of routine use of iUS during various types of intracranial surgery. We reviewed our series to assess ultrasound visibility of different pathologies and iUS applications during the course of surgery.

Materials and methods This is a retrospective review of 162 patients who underwent intracranial surgery with assistance of the iUS guidance system (SonoWand). Pathologic categories were neoplastic (135), vascular (20), infectious (2), and CSF related (5). Ultrasound visibility was assessed using the Mair classification, a four-tiered grading system that considers the echogenicity of the lesion and its border visibility (from 0 to 3; grade 0, pathology not visible; grade 3, visible with clear border with normal tissue). iUS applications included lesion localization, approach planning to deep-seated lesions, and lesion removal.

Results All pathologies were visible on iUS except one aneurysm. On average, extra-axial tumors were identified more easily and had clearer limits compared to intra-axial tumors (extra-axial 17%grade 2, 83%grade 3; intra-axial 5.5% grade 1, 46.5%grade 2, 48% grade 3). iUS provided precise and safe transcortical trajectories to deep-seated lesions (71 patients; tumors, hemangiomas, ICHs); iUS was judged to be less useful to approach skull base tumors and aneurysms. iUS was used to judge extent of resection in 152 cases; surgical artifacts reduced sonographic visibility in 25 cases: extent of resection was correctly checked in 127 patients (53 gliomas, 15 metastases, 39 meningiomas, 4 schwannomas, 4 sellar region tumors, 6 hemangiomas, 3 AVMs, 2 abscesses).

Conclusions iUS was highly sensitive in detecting all types of pathology, was safe and precise in planning trajectories to intraparenchymal lesions (including minimally mini-invasive approaches), and was accurate in checking extent of resection in more than 80% of cases. iUS is a versatile and feasible tool; it could improve safety and its use may be considered in routine intracranial surgery.

USim: A New Device and App for Case-Specific, Intraoperative Ultrasound Simulation and Rehearsal in Neurosurgery

Operative Neurosurgery 14:572–578, 2018

Intraoperative ultrasound (iUS) is an excellent aid for neurosurgeons to perform better and safer operations thanks to real time, continuous, and high-quality intraoperative visualization. OBJECTIVE: To develop an innovative training method to teach how to perform iUS in neurosurgery.

METHODS: Patients undergoing surgery for different brain or spine lesions were iUS scanned (before opening the dura) in order to arrange a collection of 3-dimensional, US images; this set of data was matched and paired to preoperatively acquired magnetic resonance images in order to create a library of neurosurgical cases to be studied offline for training and rehearsal purposes. This new iUS training approach was preliminarily tested on 14 European neurosurgery residents, who participated at the 2016 European Association of Neurosurgical Societies Training Course (Sofia, Bulgaria).

RESULTS: USim was developed by Camelot and the Besta NeuroSim Center as a dedicated app that transforms any smartphone into a “virtual US probe,” in order to simulate iUS applied to neurosurgery on a series of anonymized, patient-specific cases of different central nervous system tumors (eg, gliomas, metastases, meningiomas) for education, simulation, and rehearsal purposes. USim proved to be easy to use and allowed residents to quickly learn to handle a US probe and interpret iUS semiotics.

CONCLUSION: USim could help neurosurgeons learn neurosurgical iUS safely. Furthermore, neurosurgeons could simulate many cases, of different brain/spinal cord tumors, that resemble the specific cases they have to operate on. Finally, the library of caseswould be continuously updated, upgraded, and made available to neurosurgeons.

Navigated 3D–ultrasound versus conventional neuronavigation during awake resections of eloquent low-grade gliomas

Acta Neurochir (2018) 160:331–342

The data showing usefulness of navigated 3D– ultrasound (3DUS) during awake resections of eloquent gliomas are sparse. Results of surgeries performed using 3DUS were never compared to procedures guided by standard neuronavigation. The aim of this work is to assess the effectiveness of 3DUS during awake resections of eloquent low-grade gliomas (LGGs) by comparing surgical results of two series of patients operated on using conventional neuronavigation and using 3DUS. To our knowledge, a similar study is lacking in the literature.

Methods During a 4-year period (September 2006 to August 2010) 21 awake resections of LGGs guided by neuronavigation (series 1, S1) were consecutively performed in Department of Neurosurgery in Bratislava. During another 4-year period (August 2010 to July 2014) 28 awake resections of LGGs guided by 3DUS (series 2, S2) were consecutively conducted. In both patients series, the eloquent cortical and subcortical structures were intraoperatively detected by direct electrical stimulation. Extent of tumor resection (EOR) and functional outcome in both series were compared.

Results EOR was significantly greater (p = 0.022) in S2 (median = 93.25%; mean = 86.79%), as compared to S1 (median 87.1%; mean = 75.85%). One permanent minor deficit in S1 and 2 minor deficits in S2 occurred, the difference was not significant (p = 0.999).

Conclusions Our work represents the first study comparing results of surgeries guided by 3DUS versus conventional navigation. The extent of awake resections of eloquent LGG guided by 3DUS was greater comparing to awake resections guided by standard neuronavigation; use of 3DUS had no impact on the number of new permanent deficits.

Intraoperative 3D contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS)

Intraoperative 3D contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS)

Acta Neurochir (2016) 158:685–694

Reliable intraoperative resection control during surgery of malignant brain tumours is associated with the longer overall survival of patients. B-mode ultrasound (BUS) is a familiar intraoperative imaging application in neurosurgical procedures and supplies excellent image quality. However, due to resection-induced artefacts, its ability to distinguish between tumour borders, oedema, surrounding tissue and tumour remnants is sometimes limited. In experienced hands, this Bbright rim effect^ could be reduced. However, it should be determined, if contrast-enhanced ultrasound can improve this situation by providing high-quality imaging during the resection. The aim of this clinical study was to examine contrast-enhanced and three-dimensional reconstructed ultrasound (3D CEUS) in brain tumour surgery regarding the uptake of contrast agent pre- and post-tumour resection, imaging quality and in comparison with postoperative magnetic resonance imaging in different tumour entities.

Methods Fifty patients, suffering from various brain tumours intra-axial and extra-axial, who had all undergone surgery with the support of neuronavigation in our neurosurgical department, were included in the study. Their median age was 56 years (range, 28–79). Ultrasound imaging was performed before the Dura was opened and for resection control at the end of tumour resection as defined by the neurosurgeon. A high-end ultrasound (US) device (Toshiba Aplio XG®) with linear and sector probes for B-mode and CEUS was used. Navigation and 3D reconstruction were performed with a LOCALITE SonoNavigator® and the images were transferred digitally (DVI) to the navigation system. The contrast agent consists of echoic micro-bubbles showing tumour vascularisation. The ultrasound images were compared with the corresponding postoperative MR data in order to determine the accuracy and imaging quality of the tumours and tumour remnants after resection.

Results Different types of tumours were investigated. High, dynamic contrast agent uptake was observed in 19 of 21 patients (90 %) suffering from glioblastoma, while in 2 patients uptake was low and insufficient. In 52.4 % of glioblastoma and grade III astrocytoma patients CEUS led to an improved delineation in comparison to BUS and showed a highresolution imaging quality of the tumour margins and tumour boarders. Grade II and grade III astrocytoma (n=6) as well as metastasis (n = 18) also showed high contrast agent uptake, which led in 50 % to an improved imaging quality. In 5 of these 17 patients, intraoperative CEUS for resection control showed tumour remnants, leading to further tumour resection. Patients treated with CEUS showed no increased neurological deficits after tumour resection. No pharmacological sideeffects occurred.

Conclusions Three-dimensional CEUS is a reliable intraoperative imaging modality and could improve imaging quality. Ninety percent of the high-grade gliomas (HGG, glioblastoma and astrocytoma grade III) showed high contrast uptake with an improved imaging quality in more than 50 %. Gross total resection and incomplete resection of glioblastoma were adequately highlighted by 3D CEUS intraoperatively. The application of US contrast agent could be a helpful imaging tool, especially for resection control in glioblastoma surgery.