Lateral transorbital approach: an alternative microsurgical route for supratentorial cerebral aneurysms

J Neurosurg 134:72–83, 2021

Transorbital approaches for neurosurgery have recently attracted attention and several anatomical studies have aimed to improve these techniques, but significant deficiencies in clinical practice remain, especially for aneurysm surgery. The authors present an alternative microsurgical route and the results of an analysis of patients with intracranial aneurysms who underwent a lateral transorbital approach (LTOA) using lateral orbito-zygoma-sphenotomy (LOZYGS).

METHODS The clinical and surgical results of a series of 54 consecutive patients with 1 or more aneurysms who underwent surgery via LTOA are reported. A lateral orbitotomy was performed after making a 3-cm skin incision parallel to the lateral orbital rim. A second bone flap, which included the zygoma and sphenoid bones that form the lateral orbital wall, was removed. The lesser sphenoid wing, including the anterior clinoid process, was fully drilled, except in cases of middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms. Cisternal dissection was performed using the classic microsurgical technique starting from the proximal Sylvian fissure and carotid cistern. After the aneurysm was clipped following microsurgical principles, the dura mater was closed in a watertight fashion and 2-piece bone reconstruction was achieved.

RESULTS Sixty aneurysms in 54 patients were clipped using the LOZYGS route. Twenty-one aneurysms were located on the MCA, 30 on the anterior communicating artery, 8 on the internal carotid artery, and 1 at the apex of the basilar artery. The unruptured-to-ruptured aneurysm ratio was 17:43. The operative field was moved to the orbit using the LTOA to avoid interference by bone and muscle tissues. Early proximal control was achieved using a short working distance and direct exposure of the base of the cerebrum, without any requirement for retraction. Because different view angles and surgical corridors were used, no segment of the aneurysm or the parent artery remained unexposed. Therefore, the introduction of additional tools was not required.

CONCLUSIONS The LTOA allowed enhanced broad-perspective exposure of the operative field, early proximal control, and satisfactory surgical freedom. This alternative surgical approach safely exposed the target area and the operative field. The LOZYGS route is safe and effective for the LTOA and microsurgical clipping of anterior circulation aneurysms. According to the authors’ surgical experience and clinical experience, the LTOA can be considered an alternative surgical route to supratentorial aneurysm surgery.

Lateral Orbitotomy Approach for Lesions Involving the Middle Fossa

Neurosurgery 80:309–322, 2017

Classically used for treatment of orbital lesions,the lateral orbitotomy with cantholysis can be combined with a temporal craniectomy for lesions involving the middle cranial fossa.

OBJECTIVE: To present a single-center experience with the lateral orbitotomy approach for lesions involving the middle fossa.

METHODS: Twenty-five patients underwent lateral orbitotomies from April 2012 to July 2015. Excluding patients with solely intraorbital pathologies, 13 patients’clinical and radio- graphic records were retrospectively reviewed.

RESULTS: Signs/symptoms in the 13 patients (ages 28-81) included proptosis (69%), decreased visual acuity (31%), diplopia (54%), and afferent pupillary defect (69%). Pathologies were meningioma (8), esthesioneuroblastoma, lymphoma, chordoma, Ewing’s sarcoma, and squamous cell carcinoma. Surgical goals were maximal safe resection in 8 patients, palliative debulking in 3 patients, and cavernous sinus biopsy in 2 patients. In 8 patients for whom maximal resection was the goal, 2 had gross total resection, while 6 had near-total resection. All patients (3) for whom palliation was the goal had symptomatic improvement. Both cavernous sinus biopsies obtained diagnostic tissue without complications. All patients with proptosis (n = 9) and diplopia (n = 7), and 2 of 4 patients with decreased visual acuity had improvement in their symptoms. No patient reported worsening of their symptoms. Mean follow-up was 12 mo (2-30 mo). Complica- tions included oculorrhea (1), pseudomeningocele (2), transient ptosis (2), and forehead numbness (1).

CONCLUSION: The lateral orbitotomy is a promising approach for carefully selected lesions with involvement of both the lateral orbit and middle cranial fossa. It provides minimally invasive access for biopsy, decompression, or resection.

Endoscopic lateral orbitotomy

Endoscopic lateral orbitotomy

Acta Neurochir (2014) 156:1897–1900

Lateral orbitotomy can be minimalized using contemporary endoscopy.

Methods Anatomy of the temporal fossa/orbital wall junction is described. The attachment of the temporal fascia is cut off from the orbital rim through a 1.5 cm skin incision in the lateral orbital wrinkle. The temporal muscle is detached from the bone to create a space for the telescope. An appropriate bone opening in the lateral orbital wall is created with the aid of neuronavigation to handle intraorbital pathology.

Conclusion Endoscopic lateral orbitotomy is an original alternative to the microsurgical Krönlein approach and yields good functional and cosmetic results.