Functional outcomes after resection of middle frontal gyrus diffuse gliomas

J Neurosurg 137:1–8, 2022

The clinical outcomes for patients undergoing resection of diffuse glioma within the middle frontal gyrus (MFG) are understudied. Anatomically, the MFG is richly interconnected to known language areas, and nearby subcortical fibers are at risk during resection. The goal of this study was to determine the functional outcomes and intraoperative mapping results related to resection of MFG gliomas. Additionally, the study aimed to evaluate if subcortical tract disruption on imaging correlated with functional outcomes.

METHODS The authors performed a retrospective review of 39 patients with WHO grade II–IV diffuse gliomas restricted to only the MFG and underlying subcortical region that were treated with resection and had no prior treatment. Intraoperative mapping results and postoperative neurological deficits by discharge and 90 days were assessed. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography was used to assess subcortical tract integrity on pre- and postoperative imaging.

RESULTS The mean age of the cohort was 37.9 years at surgery, and the median follow-up was 5.1 years. The mean extent of resection was 98.9% for the cohort. Of the 39 tumors, 24 were left sided (61.5%). Thirty-six patients (92.3%) underwent intraoperative mapping, with 59% of patients undergoing an awake craniotomy. No patients had positive cortical mapping sites overlying the tumor, and 12 patients (33.3%) had positive subcortical stimulation sites. By discharge, 8 patients had language dysfunction, and 5 patients had mild weakness. By 90 days, 2 patients (5.1%) had persistent mild hand weakness only. There were no persistent language deficits by 90 days. On univariate analysis, preoperative tumor size (p = 0.0001), positive subcortical mapping (p = 0.03), preoperative tumor invasion of neighboring subcortical tracts on DTI tractography (p = 0.0003), and resection cavity interruption of subcortical tracts on DTI tractography (p < 0.0001) were associated with an increased risk of having a postoperative deficit by discharge. There were no instances of complete subcortical tract transections in the cohort.

CONCLUSIONS MFG diffuse gliomas may undergo extensive resection with minimal risk for long-term morbidity. Partial subcortical tract interruption may lead to transient but not permanent deficits. Subcortical mapping is essential to reduce permanent morbidity during resection of MFG tumors by avoiding complete transection of critical subcortical tracts.

 

Neurophysiological examination combined with functional intraoperative navigation using TMS in patients with brain tumor near the central region

Acta Neurochirurgica (2019) 161:1853–1864

Feasibility and value of non-invasive transcranial magnetic brain stimulation (TMS MAGVENTURE® MagPro R30 Denmark) for preoperative diagnosis and surgical planning of brain tumor operations in everyday clinical practice.

Methods A prospective monocentric study was conducted, which included preoperative neurological and electrophysiological examination, TMS, and display of functional data in the navigation system (LOCALITE® TMS Navigator Germany). During surgery, the TMS data were correlated with the intraoperative monitoring (IOM). Twenty-four hours to 96 h and after at least 3 months, follow-ups with neurological, electrophysiological examinations and TMS stimulation were performed.

Results Twenty-five patients with tumors in or near by the primary motor cortex region were included in the study. Twenty-one patients completed preoperative and first postoperative TMS and the neurological examination. Eight of 21 patients showed slight worsening of primary motor cortex function, 8 patients had an unchanged state, and 4 patients showed an improvement early after surgery. The changes of the electrophysiological examination like significant delay of the latency and/or reduced amplitudes matched well with the postoperative neurological outcome: if patients showed a worsening of the SEP’s and MEP’s, the postoperative results revealed deterioration.

Conclusion A preoperatively performed TMS using the MAGVENTURE® MagPro R30 and the LOCALITE® TMS Navigator could be established in our clinical daily practice and allowed a safe and reliable mapping of the primary motor cortex in order to minimize the risk of postoperative neurological deficits and improve the neurological outcome of the patients.

Intraoperative perception and estimates on extent of resection during awake glioma surgery: overcoming the learning curve

J Neurosurg 128:1410–1418, 2018

There is ample evidence that extent of resection (EOR) is associated with improved outcomes for glioma surgery. However, it is often difficult to accurately estimate EOR intraoperatively, and surgeon accuracy has yet to be reviewed. In this study, the authors quantitatively assessed the accuracy of intraoperative perception of EOR during awake craniotomy for tumor resection.

METHODS A single-surgeon experience of performing awake craniotomies for tumor resection over a 17-year period was examined. Retrospective review of operative reports for quantitative estimation of EOR was recorded. Definitive EOR was based on postoperative MRI. Analysis of accuracy of EOR estimation was examined both as a general outcome (gross-total resection [GTR] or subtotal resection [STR]), and quantitatively (5% within EOR on postoperative MRI). Patient demographics, tumor characteristics, and surgeon experience were examined. The effects of accuracy on motor and language outcomes were assessed.

RESULTS A total of 451 patients were included in the study. Overall accuracy of intraoperative perception of whether GTR or STR was achieved was 79.6%, and overall accuracy of quantitative perception of resection (within 5% of postoperative MRI) was 81.4%. There was a significant difference (p = 0.049) in accuracy for gross perception over the 17- year period, with improvement over the later years: 1997–2000 (72.6%), 2001–2004 (78.5%), 2005–2008 (80.7%), and 2009–2013 (84.4%). Similarly, there was a significant improvement (p = 0.015) in accuracy of quantitative perception of EOR over the 17-year period: 1997–2000 (72.2%), 2001–2004 (69.8%), 2005–2008 (84.8%), and 2009–2013 (93.4%). This improvement in accuracy is demonstrated by the significantly higher odds of correctly estimating quantitative EOR in the later years of the series on multivariate logistic regression. Insular tumors were associated with the highest accuracy of gross perception (89.3%; p = 0.034), but lowest accuracy of quantitative perception (61.1% correct; p < 0.001) compared with tumors in other locations. Even after adjusting for surgeon experience, this particular trend for insular tumors remained true. The absence of 1p19q co-deletion was associated with higher quantitative perception accuracy (96.9% vs 81.5%; p = 0.051). Tumor grade, recurrence, diagnosis, and isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 (IDH-1) status were not associated with accurate perception of EOR. Overall, new neurological deficits occurred in 8.4% of cases, and 42.1% of those new neurological deficits persisted after the 3-month follow-up. Correct quantitative perception was associated with lower postoperative motor deficits (2.4%) compared with incorrect perceptions (8.0%; p = 0.029). There were no detectable differences in language outcomes based on perception of EOR.

CONCLUSIONS The findings from this study suggest that there is a learning curve associated with the ability to accurately assess intraoperative EOR during glioma surgery, and it may take more than a decade to be truly proficient. Understanding the factors associated with this ability to accurately assess EOR will provide safer surgeries while maximizing tumor resection.

Locating and Outlining the Cortical Motor Representation Areas of Facial Muscles With Navigated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

Locating and Outlining the Cortical Motor Representation Areas of Facial Muscles With Navigated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

Neurosurgery 77:394–405, 2015

Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) has become established as an accurate noninvasive technique for mapping the functional motor cortex for the representation areas of upper and lower limb muscles but not yet for facial musculature.

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the applicability and clinical impact of using nTMS to map cortical motor areas of facial muscles in healthy volunteers and neurosurgical tumor patients.

METHODS: Eight healthy volunteers and 12 patients with tumor were studied. The motor threshold (MT) was determined for the abductor pollicis brevis and mentalis muscles. The lateral part of the motor cortex was mapped with suprathreshold stimulation intensity, and motor evoked potentials were recorded from several facial muscles. The patient protocol was modified according to the clinical indication.

RESULTS: In all healthy subjects, motor evoked potentials were elicited in the mentalis (mean latency, 13.4 milliseconds) and orbicularis oris (mean latency, 12.6 milliseconds) muscles. At 110% of MT of the mentalis, the motor evoked potentials of facial muscles were elicited mainly in the precentral gyrus but also from one gyrus anterior and posterior to it. The cortical areas applicable for mapping were limited by an artifact attributable to direct peripheral nerve stimulation. The mapping protocol was successful in 10 of 12 tumor patients at locating the representation area of the lower facial muscles. The MT of the facial muscles was significantly higher than that of the abductor pollicis brevis.

CONCLUSION: nTMS is an applicable and clinically beneficial noninvasive method to preoperatively map the cortical representation areas of the facial muscles in the lower part of the face. Instead of using the MT of the abductor pollicis brevis, the stimulus intensity during mapping should be proportioned to the MT of a facial muscle.

The stereotactic approach for mapping epileptic networks

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J Neurosurg 121:1239–1246, 2014

Stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) is a methodology that permits accurate 3D in vivo electroclinical recordings of epileptiform activity. Among other general indications for invasive intracranial electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring, its advantages include access to deep cortical structures, its ability to localize the epileptogenic zone when subdural grids have failed to do so, and its utility in the context of possible multifocal seizure onsets with the need for bihemispheric explorations. In this context, the authors present a brief historical overview of the technique and report on their experience with 2 SEEG techniques (conventional Leksell frame-based stereotaxy and frameless stereotaxy under robotic guidance) for the purpose of invasively monitoring difficult-to-localize refractory focal epilepsy.

Methods. Over a period of 4 years, the authors prospectively identified 200 patients with refractory epilepsy who collectively underwent 2663 tailored SEEG electrode implantations for invasive intracranial EEG monitoring and extraoperative mapping. The first 122 patients underwent conventional Leksell frame-based SEEG electrode placement; the remaining 78 patients underwent frameless stereotaxy under robotic guidance, following acquisition of a stereotactic ROSA robotic device at the authors’ institution. Electrodes were placed according to a preimplantation hypothesis of the presumed epileptogenic zone, based on a standardized preoperative workup including video-EEG monitoring, MRI, PET, ictal SPECT, and neuropsychological assessment. Demographic features, seizure semiology, number and location of implanted SEEG electrodes, and location of the epileptogenic zone were recorded and analyzed for all patients. For patients undergoing subsequent craniotomy for resection, the type of resection and procedure-related complications were prospectively recorded. These results were analyzed and correlated with pathological diagnosis and postoperative seizure outcomes.

Results. The epileptogenic zone was confirmed by SEEG in 154 patients (77%), of which 134 (87%) underwent subsequent craniotomy for epileptogenic zone resection. Within this cohort, 90 patients had a minimum follow-up of at least 12 months; therein, 61 patients (67.8%) remained seizure free, with an average follow-up period of 2.4 years. The most common pathological diagnosis was focal cortical dysplasia Type I (55 patients, 61.1%). Per electrode, the surgical complications included wound infection (0.08%), hemorrhagic complications (0.08%), and a transient neurological deficit (0.04%) in a total of 5 patients (2.5%). One patient (0.5%) ultimately died due to intracerebral hematoma directly ensuing from SEEG electrode placement.

Conclusions. Based on these results, SEEG methodology is safe, reliable, and effective. It is associated with minimal morbidity and mortality, and serves as a practical, minimally invasive approach to extraoperative localization of the epileptogenic zone in patients with refractory epilepsy.