Clinical Pearls and Methods for Intraoperative Motor Mapping

Neurosurgery 88:457–467, 2021

Resection of brain tumors involving motor areas and pathways requires the identification and preservation of various cortical and subcortical structures involved in motor control at the time of the procedure, in order to maintain the patient’s full motor capacities. The use of brain mapping techniques has now been integrated into clinical practice for many years, as they help the surgeon to identify the neural structures involved in motor functions. A common definition of motor function, as well as knowledge of its neural organization, has been continuously evolving, underlining the need for implementing intraoperative strategies at the time of the procedure. Similarly, mapping strategies have been subjected to continuous changes, enhancing the likelihood of preservation of full motor capacities. As a general rule, the motor mapping strategy should be as flexible as possible and adapted strictly to the individual patient and clinical context of the tumor.

In this work, we present an overview of current knowledge of motor organization, indications for motor mapping, available motor mapping, and monitoring strategies, as well as their advantages and limitations. The use of motor mapping improves resection and outcomes in patients harboring tumors involving motor areas and pathways, and should be considered the gold standard in the resection of this type of tumor.

Early Rehabilitation Targeting Cognition, Behavior, and Motor Function After Lumbar Fusion A Randomized Controlled Trial

Spine 2010;35:848–857

Study Design. Open label randomized controlled trial with 3-, 6-, 12-month, and 2- to 3-year follow-up.

Objective. To investigate the effectiveness of a psychomotor therapy focusing on cognition, behavior, and motor relearning compared with exercise therapy applied during the first 3 months after lumbar fusion.

Summary of Background Data. Postoperative management after lumbar fusion commonly focuses on analgesic pain control and activities of daily living. After 3 months, exercise therapy is often implemented. No randomized controlled trial has investigated early rehabilitation techniques conducted during the first 3 months after surgery.

Methods. The study recruited 107 patients, aged 18 to 65 years, selected for lumbar fusion because of 12 months of symptomatic spinal stenosis, spondylosis, degenerative/isthmic spondylolisthesis, or degenerative disc disease. The exercise therapy group received a home program focusing on pain contingent training of back, abdominal, and leg muscle functional strength and endurance, stretching, and cardiovascular fitness. The psychomotor therapy group received a home program and 3 outpatient sessions focusing on modifying maladaptive pain cognitions, behaviors, and motor control. Rated questionnaires investigating functional disability, pain, health-related quality of life, functional self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, fear of movement/(re)injury, and coping were assessed at 3, 6, 12 months, and 2 to 3 years after surgery.

Results. Follow-up rates were 93% at 12 months and 81% at 2 to 3 years after surgery. Psychomotor therapy improved functional disability, self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and fear of movement/(re)injury significantly more than exercise therapy at respective follow-up occasions. Similar results occurred for pain coping but group differences were nonsignificant at 2 to 3 years follow-up. Potentially clinical relevant higher reoperation rates occurred after psychomotor therapy but rates were within normal ranges.

Conclusion. The study shows that postoperative rehabilitation can be safely implemented during the first 3 months after lumbar fusion and should include measures to modify psychological as well as motor functions.