Surgical Treatment of Giant Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations

Neurosurgery 67:1359–1370, 2010 DOI: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e3181eda216

The treatment of giant arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) remains a challenge in the neurosurgical field. Microsurgery is one of the most effective ways for eliminating giant cerebral AVMs.

OBJECTIVE: To review surgical outcomes in treating the disease, and form conclusions regarding the indications for and outcomes of surgical treatment in giant intracranial AVMs.

METHODS: We studied 40 consecutive cases of giant AVMs treated in Beijing Tiantan Hospital between 2000 and 2008. The radiologic and clinical features were analyzed. The Spetzler-Martin grading system was used to classify the patients. All patients were surgically treated, and the final outcomes of the patients were gathered for analysis.

RESULTS: The major presenting symptoms were seizures, headaches, hemorrhage, and neurological deficits. The mean AVM diameter was 6.3 cm. According to the Spetzler- Martin grading system, 5 patients had grade III lesions, 21 had grade IV lesions, and 14 had grade V lesions. Out of the total 40 patients, 31 (77.5%) demonstrated excellent or good outcome. Complications included hemiparalysis, aphasia, hemianopia, cranial nerve dysfunction, and seizures. After follow-up, 27 of 30 (90%) surviving patients presented normal function or minimal symptoms.

CONCLUSION: Presurgical evaluation of every candidate and treatment choice is the determining factor in therapy for giant AVMs. For giant cerebral AVMs located superficially or not involving critical components, a good outcome can be expected through surgical resection. The obliteration and recurrence rates were satisfying, and the complication rate was acceptable.

Multimodality treatment of cerebral AVMs in children: a single-centre 20 years experience

Childs Nerv Syst (2010) 26:681–687.DOI 10.1007/s00381-009-1039-8

The purpose of this study was to review our experience with a multimodality treatment approach in the management of cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) in children.

Methods We retrospectively analysed a consecutive series of 56 children who harboured a cerebral AVM and were treated at our institution between 1988 and 2008. During the whole treatment period, a combined treatment strategy, including microsurgery, endovascular treatment and gamma knife radiosurgery, was used.

Results Of the 56 patients (median age, 14.0; range, 3 months–18 years) reported, 36 (64.3%) were admitted after AVM rupture; of these, only one AVM (1.8%) was considered untreatable. In 30.9% (17/55) of the treated patients, a single treatment measure was sufficient to attain angiographic cure of the AVM. Among these, six patients (10.9%) had microsurgical AVM resection, four patients (7.3%) underwent endovascular treatment, and another seven patients (12.7%) underwent radiosurgical management of the AVM. The majority of the population (38/55; 69.1%) underwent combined treatment: 21 patients (38.2%) received embolisation followed by radiosurgery of the remnant nidus, ten patients (18.2%) underwent embolisation with subsequent surgical resection of the residual AVM, three patients (5.5%) had radiosurgery after incomplete surgical AVM nidus resection and another four patients (7.3%) required a combination of all three treatment modalities to achieve permanent angiographic cure of the AVM. We observed good clinical outcomes (Glasgow Outcome Scale 5 and 4) in 94.6% of the children. Complete angiographic obliteration was achieved in 93.3% of the patients treated.

Conclusion A multimodality treatment approach in children harbouring cerebral AVMs leads to excellent angiographic and clinical outcomes.