Medication intake and hemorrhage risk in patients with familial cerebral cavernous malformations

J Neurosurg 137:1088–1094, 2022

The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of medication intake on hemorrhage risk in patients with familial cerebral cavernous malformation (FCCM).

METHODS The authors’ institutional database was screened for patients with FCCM who had been admitted to their department between 2003 and 2020. Patients with a complete magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data set, evidence of multiple CCMs, clinical baseline characteristics, and follow-up (FU) examination were included in the study. The authors assessed the influence of medication intake on first or recurrent intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) using univariate and multivariate logistic regression adjusted for age and sex. The longitudinal cumulative 5-year risk of hemorrhage was calculated by applying Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses adjusted for age and sex.

RESULTS Two hundred five patients with FCCMs were included in the study. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed ICH as a predictor for recurrent hemorrhage during the 5-year FU. The authors also noted a tendency toward a decreased association with ICH during FU in patients on statin medication (HR 0.22, 95% CI 0.03–1.68, p = 0.143), although the relationship was not statistically significant. No bleeding events were observed in patients on antithrombotic therapy. Kaplan-Meier analysis and log-rank test showed a tendency toward a low risk of ICH during FU in patients on antithrombotic therapy (p = 0.085), as well as those on statin therapy (p = 0.193). The cumulative 5-year risk of bleeding was 22.82% (95% CI 17.33%–29.38%) for the entire cohort, 31.41% (95% CI 23.26%–40.83%) for patients with a history of ICH, 26.54% (95% CI 11.13%–49.7%) for individuals on beta-blocker medication, 6.25% (95% CI 0.33%–32.29%) for patients on statin medication, and 0% (95% CI 0%–30.13%) for patients on antithrombotic medication.

CONCLUSIONS ICH at diagnosis was identified as a risk factor for recurrent hemorrhage. Although the relationships were not statistically significant, statin and antithrombotic medication tended to be associated with decreased bleeding events.

Treatment for secondary deterioration in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus in the later course of the disease

Acta Neurochirurgica (2020) 162:2431–2439

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunting is a highly effective treatment for idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). However, secondary deterioration can occur at a later time. Thus, the current study aimed to evaluate the incidence rate and causes of secondary deterioration.

Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted on all patients with iNPH who were treated with implantation of a CSF shunt since 1993. A meticulous shunt workup was recommended to all patients who presented to our department with secondary deterioration during their follow-up visits. Data about the proportion of patients with such deterioration and its causes, subsequent treatment, and clinical outcome were obtained.

Results A total of 169 patients were included, and the mean follow-up time was 69.2 months. In total, 119 (70.4%) patients presented with a total of 153 secondary deteriorations. In 9 cases (5.9%), the deterioration was caused by delayed subdural hematoma and in 27 (22.1%) cases, by shunt dysfunction. Invasive shunt testing was commonly required to validate shunt failure. Moreover, 19 of 27 patients experienced a satisfactory improvement after revision surgery. In total, 86 deteriorations were attributed to nonsurgical causes, and the valve pressure was decreased in 79 patients, with only 16.5% presenting with a satisfactory improvement after lowering of valve pressure.

Conclusions Most patients with shunted iNPH presented with deterioration in the later course of the disease. Shunt dysfunction was considered a cause of secondary deterioration. Moreover, shunt revision surgery was a highly effective treatment, and patients with deterioration should undergo screening procedures for shunt dysfunction, including invasive shunt testing.

Surgery of brainstem cavernous malformations

Brainstem cavernoma

Acta Neurochir (2013) 155:2079–2083

Cavernomas are vascular hamartomas made up of thin-walled, grossly dilated blood vessels lined with endothelium. Between 4 and 35 % (mean 15 %) of cerebral cavernomas are located in the brainstem making resection of these lesions one of the most challenging tasks in neurosurgery.

Methods Patients with cavernomas within the brainstem or deep supratentorial structures were chosen from our prospectively collected database of operated patients with brain cavernomas. The timespan of treatment was between January 1998 and June 2012. Primary outcome was defined as percentage of patients with favourable outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) 4 or 5) at 1 year. Secondary outcome was defined as operation-related morbidity and mortality (drop at least 1 point on GOS at 1 year).

Results A total of 37 patients underwent surgery. The mean age was 34.7±11.7 years. The male to female ratio was 19:16. Thirty-two patients had a solitary lesion and 12 patients harboured multiple lesions. The Glasgow outcome score 4 or 5 was achieved after 34 operations (89.5 %). The mean follow-up was 39 months.We experienced two early post-operative deaths (5.3 %) and decrease in the Glasgow outcome scale postoperatively in 4 patients (10.5 %).

Conclusions • Favourable outcome was achieved in 89.5 % of cases. • Although M&M appears to be relatively high, surgery is method of choice for surgically accessible lesion which has bled for the first time due to reported high rebleed rate and high probability of poor outcome after cavernoma rebleed. • Radiosurgery should be reserved for those lesions which are deemed unresectable and where surgical intervention is considered favourable to observation alone.