Efficacy and safety of the endoscopic “wet‑field” technique for removal of supratentorial cavernous malformations

Acta Neurochirurgica (2022) 164:2587–2594

Cerebral cavernous malformations (CMs) presenting with focal neurological symptoms or mass effects require surgical removal. In recent years, cylindrical retractors have been widely utilized for the removal of deep-seated lesions during both microscopic and endoscopic surgery. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of endoscopic transcylinder removal of CMs using a novel wet-field technique.

Methods We included 13 patients with supratentorial CMs who had undergone endoscopic transcylinder surgery between April 2013 and March 2022. One patient experienced recurrence of the CM and underwent a second endoscopic transcylinder surgery. Therefore, we retrospectively evaluated 14 procedures. The surgical field was continuously irrigated with artificial cerebrospinal fluid to maintain expansion and visualization of the tumor bed. We termed this method as the “wet-field technique.” Patient characteristics, symptoms, and pre- and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging results were obtained from medical records.

Results The average maximum CM diameter was 35.3 mm (range: 10–65 mm). Cylinder diameters were 6 mm in eight procedures, 10 mm in four procedures, and 17 mm in one procedure. Wet-field technique was applied in all cases. The endoscope provided a bright field of view even under water. Continuous water irrigation made it easier to observe the entire tumor bed which naturally expanded by water pressure. Gross total resection was achieved in 13 procedures, while subtotal resection was achieved in one procedure. No surgical complications were observed.

Conclusions The endoscopic transcylinder removal using wet-field technique is safe and effective for the removal of symptomatic intracranial supratentorial CMs.

Computed Tomography-Based Image-Guided System in Spinal Surgery

Computed Tomography-Based Image-Guided System in Spinal Surgery

Operative Neurosurgery 11:59–68, 2015

Image-guided navigation systems (IGS) grant excellent clinical and radiological results, minimizing risks correlated with spinal instrumentation. However, there is some concern regarding the real need for IGS and its indications.

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the accuracy, technical aspect, and radiation exposure data of the principal IGS based on computed tomography (CT) imaging.

METHODS: The data of all patients treated for spinal instrumentation with the aid of an IGS system from January 2003 to March 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. We defined 2 groups: group I with an IGS system based on a preoperative CT scan; group II relied on an intraoperative CT scan. Screw accuracy was assessed with a postoperative CT scan control. Radiation dosage for patients was defined by using the technical parameters and dose report data. Statistical analysis was performed using the Fisher exact test with a significance of 5% (P value < .05).

RESULTS: Two thousand twenty patients and 11 144 screws were analyzed. Group I had 794 patients (4246 screws); the accuracy was 96.1%. Group II had 1226 patients (6898 screws) treated, with 98.5% accuracy (P = .001). The radiation dose analysis showed better results in group II, with significant reduction of the effective dose to the patient.

CONCLUSION: The IGS based on an intraoperative CT scan grants excellent results, eliminating the rate of reoperation for misplaced instrumentations (screws, plate, and cage) or for inadequate bone decompression. However, this technology cannot replace the surgical skills, experience, and knowledge necessary for spine surgery.