Assessment of ETV patency with the 3D-SPACE technique

Assessment of third ventriculostomy patency with the 3D-SPACE technique

J Neurosurg 122:1347–1355, 2015

The goal of this study was to determine the value of the 3D sampling perfection with application-optimized contrasts using different flip-angle evolutions (3D-SPACE) technique in the evaluation of endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) patency.

Methods Twenty-six patients with ETV were examined using 3-T MRI units. Sagittal-plane 3D-SPACE with variant flip-angle mode, 3D T1-weighted (T1W), and 3D heavily T2-weighted (T2W) images were obtained with isotropic voxel sizes. Also, sagittal-axial plane phase-contrast cine (PC)-MR images were obtained. The following findings were evaluated: diameters of stoma and third ventricle, flow-void sign on 3D-SPACE and PC-MR images, integrity of the third ventricle on heavily T2W images, and quantitative PC-MRI parameters of the stoma. Obtained sequences were evaluated singly, in combination with one another, and all together.

Results The mean area, flow, and velocity values measured at the level of stoma in patients with patent stoma were significantly higher than those measured in patients with closed stoma (p < 0.05). There was significant correlation among PC-MRI, 3D-SPACE, and 3D heavily T2W techniques regarding assessment of ETV patency (p < 0.001). The 3D-SPACE technique provided the lowest rate of ambiguous results.

Conclusions The 3D-SPACE technique seems to be the most efficient one for determination of ETV patency. The authors suggest the use of 3D-SPACE as a stand-alone first-line sequence in addition to routine brain MRI protocols in assessing patients with ETV, thereby decreasing scan time and reserving the use of a combination of additional sequences such as PC-MRI and 3D heavily T2W images in suspicious or complex cases.

Endoscopic third ventriculostomy for obstructive hydrocephalus in children younger than 6 months of age

Childs Nerv Syst. DOI 10.1007/s00381-009-1019-z

The outcome of endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is worse in children younger than 2 years old and especially in infants, and controversies still exist whether ETV might be superior to shunt placement in this age group. We retrospectively analyzed the data of 23 patients younger than 6 months of age treated with ETV and assessed its feasibility as a first choice of treatment for hydrocephalus.

Methods: Between 1994 and 2008 in our clinic, 23 patients younger than 6 months having presented with obstructive hydrocephalus were treated endoscopically. The etiology of hydrocephalus was congenital aqueduct stenosis in 11 patients, posthemorrhagic obstruction in six patients, myelomeningocele in two patients, postmeningitis in two patients, Chiari I malformation in one patients, and Dandy Walker variant in one patient. ETV was considered successful when no shunt operation was needed in the patient.

Results: ETV was successful in eight patients with regression of intracranial hypertension. In the remaining 15 patients ventriculoperitoneal shunt implantation was necessary. Total success rate in our group of patients was 34.8%. In patients younger than 3 months of age (n=12), success rate was 25.0%. In patients from 3 to 6 months of age (n=11), success rate was 45.5%. Complication included intraventricular hemorrhage in one patient, meningitis and cerebrospinal fluid leak in one patient, and meningitis in one patient.

Conclusions: Based on our experience, ETV could be the first method of choice for hydrocephalus in children younger than 6 months of age, especially in patients older than 3 months of age.