Eyebrow supraorbital keyhole craniotomy for olfactory groove meningiomas with endoscope assistance

Acta Neurochirurgica (2021) 163:101–112

Olfactory groove meningiomas (OGMs) are commonly treated with open craniotomy. Endonasal approaches have also been described. Objective To present clinical and radiographic outcomes for the minimally invasive eyebrow incision supraorbital keyhole approach with endoscopic assistance for OGMs.

Methods We performed a retrospective single-center cohort study and a systematic literature review.

Results Fifteen patients were identified, all with Grade I meningiomas. Radiographic gross total resection of enhancing tumor was achieved in all patients. Mean frontal lobe fluid-attenuated inversion recovery volume decreased from 11.1 ± 18.3 cm3 preoperatively to 9.9 ± 11.4 cm3 immediately postoperatively, and there was minimal new restricted diffusion (3.2 ± 2.2 cm3; max 7.5 cm3). Median length of stay was 3 days (range 2–8). Vision was improved in 4 (80%) and stable in 1 (20%) of 5 patients with a preoperative deficit. New postoperative anosmia occurred in 3 (23%) of 13 patients with any preoperative olfaction. All patients were satisfied with their cosmetic result at 3 months. After a median follow-up of 32.2 months, there were 2 (13.3%) asymptomatic radiographic recurrences, 1 treated with radiosurgery and the other with endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA). No patients required further craniotomy. Systematic review revealed the present series to be the largest to date reporting disaggregated outcomes for the eyebrow approach to OGM.

Conclusion The eyebrow incision supraorbital keyhole craniotomy with endoscopic assistance is a safe and effective approach to OGM with tumor control rates similar to more invasive open approaches and better than the endonasal approach.Rates of frontal lobe injury, CSF leak and anosmia are comparatively low.

Avoidance of postoperative epistaxis and anosmia in endonasal endoscopic skull base surgery

Avoid anosmia and epistaxis in EEA

Acta Neurochir (2014) 156:1393–1401

Most endoscopic transsphenoidal approaches jeopardize the sphenopalatine artery and septal olfactory strip (SOS), increasing the risk of postoperative anosmia and epistaxis while precluding the ability to raise pedicled nasoseptal flaps (NSF). We describe a bilateral “rescue flap” technique that preserves the mucosa containing the nasal-septal vascular pedicles and the SOS. This approach can reduce the risk of postoperative complications, including epistaxis and anosmia.

Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted of all patients who underwent endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery with preservation of both sphenopalatine vascular pedicles and SOS. In a recent subset of patients, olfactory assessment was performed.

Results Of 174 consecutive operations performed in 161 patients, bilateral preservation of the sphenopalatine vascular pedicle and SOS was achieved in 139 (80 %) operations, including 31 (22 %) with prior transsphenoidal surgery. Of the remaining 35 operations, 18 had a planned formal NSF and 17 had prior surgery or extensive lesions precluding use of this technique. Of pituitary adenomas, RCCs or sellar arachnoid cysts, 118 (94 %) underwent this approach, including 91% of patients who had prior surgery. Preoperative olfaction function was maintained in 97 % of patients that were tested. None of the patients had postoperative arterial epistaxis.

Conclusion Preservation of bilateral sphenopalatine vascular pedicles and the SOS is feasible in over 90 % of patients undergoing endonasal endoscopic surgery for pituitary adenomas and RCCs. This approach, while not hindering exposure or limiting instrument maneuverability, preserves the nasoseptal vasculature for future NSF use if needed and appears to minimize the risks of postoperative arterial epistaxis and anosmia.