Clinical features and operative technique of transinfundibular craniopharyngioma

J Neurosurg 133:119–128, 2020

Transinfundibular craniopharyngioma (TC) is one of the 4 subtypes of suprasellar craniopharyngioma. In this study, the authors analyzed the clinical features of and operative technique for TC.

METHODS A total of 95 consecutive cases of suprasellar craniopharyngioma that had been resected via the endoscopic expanded endonasal approach were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into 2 groups: 34 in the TC group and 61 in the nontransinfundibular craniopharyngioma (NC) group. Clinical and radiographic features, intraoperative findings, histopathological and genetic findings, and surgical outcomes were analyzed and compared between groups.

RESULTS Compared with NC, TC was mostly seen in adult patients (97.1%); it was rare in children (2.9%). Clinical presentations tended toward headache, hydrocephalus, and diabetes insipidus. The relatively smaller volume, midline location (consistent with the stalk position), unidentifiable stalk, no shift of the third ventricle, and greater likelihood to involve the third ventricle and cause hydrocephalus were the characteristic features of TC in the preoperative MRI study. According to the degree of vertical extension of the tumor, the 34 TCs could be classified into 3 subtypes: type 1, entity was limited to stalk (n = 2, 5.9%); type 2, tumor extended up to the third ventricle (type 2a) or down to the subdiaphragmatic cavity (type 2b) (n = 23, 67.6%); and type 3, tumor extended in both directions (n = 9, 26.5%). For TC resection, the chiasm–pituitary corridor, lamina terminalis corridor, and pituitary corridor could be used separately or jointly. Most of the TCs originated from the infundibulum–tuber cinereum, grew within and along the long axis of the infundibulum, and the pituitary stalk was not usually preserved in TCs (20.6%), whereas the rate of preservation was higher (80.3%) in NCs. Bilateral hypothalamic injury was found in nearly all TCs if radical resection was performed, whereas the relationship between NCs and hypothalamus was either compression (32.8%) or unilateral invasion (67.2%). Meanwhile, the postoperative endocrine and neuropsychological function outcomes in patients with TC were worse than in patients with NC. The genetic analysis with whole-exome sequencing studies showed no differential mutations of CTNNB1 (b-catenin) and BRAF (V600E) between TC and NC subtypes, but there was a difference between adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma and papillary craniopharyngioma.

CONCLUSIONS TC is a special subtype of suprasellar craniopharyngioma, which is remarkably different from NC. Identification of this type of tumor preoperatively is essential for the planning of appropriate surgical approach and degree of excision.

The cranial orbital buttress technique for nonsyndromic unicoronal and metopic craniosynostosis

The cranial orbital buttress technique for nonsyndromic unicoronal and metopic craniosynostosis

Neurosurg Focus 38 (5):E4, 2015

Current craniosynostosis procedures can result in complications due to absorbable plates and screws or other specialized expensive hardware. The authors propose the cranial orbital buttress (COB) technique of frontoorbital remodeling for metopic and unicoronal synostoses, wherein no plates or screws are used. They hypothesize that, with this technique, aesthetically acceptable outcomes for unicoronal and metopic synostosis can be achieved. In this article, they present this technique and compare the results with current frontoorbital remodeling practices.

METHODS The authors conducted a retrospective chart review of cases in which patients with nonsyndromic unicoronal or metopic synostosis underwent cranio-orbital surgery at their institution from 1985 through 2009. Operative parameters, surgical variations, and complications were analyzed. The COB technique uses a 1-piece switch, hemiforeheads, or multiple pieces for forehead remodeling. The supraorbital bar is reconstructed in patients with metopic synostosis using a double wedge or greenstick fracture technique, and in patients with unicoronal synostosis a hinge procedure based on a 1.5-orbital osteotomy is used. The supraorbital bar is advanced and supported in place by bone graft(s) inserted at the lateral aspect(s) of the orbit(s) to form a buttress, with fixation done using absorbable sutures.

RESULTS A total of 79 cases met the criteria for inclusion in the study. Twenty-nine patients had metopic synostosis, 3 had combined metopic and sagittal synostoses, and 47 had unicoronal synostosis. The patients’ mean age at surgery was 11.4 ± 10.1 months and the mean operative time was 183.4 ± 41.0 minutes. The mean length of hospital stay was 3.7 ± 1.2 days. The mean blood loss was 150.0 ± 125.6 ml, and 33% of patients required a blood transfusion (mean volume 206.9 ± 102.3 ml). In metopic synostosis, hemiforeheads were used most often (24/29, 83%), and the supraorbital bar was remodeled using a bilateral intracranial orbital osteotomy followed by a double wedge modification (23/29,79%) or a greenstick fracture (4/29 14%) for milder cases. Forehead remodeling for unicoronal synostosis was by a forehead switch (39/47, 83%) and the supraorbital bar was remodeled using a 1.5-orbital intracranial orbital osteotomy (34/47, 72%) such that the bar was advanced on the abnormal side and hinged at the midline of the normal orbit. Perioperative complications occurred in 19% of cases and included dural tears (16%), inconsequential subdural hematoma (1.3%), and nasal greenstick fracture (1.3%). The total reoperation rate was 7.6% (cranioplasties for irregular contours, 6.3%; scar revision, 1.3%).

CONCLUSIONS The COB remodeling technique is simple and efficient, gives acceptable outcomes, and is less resource intensive than previous techniques reported in the literature.

Flat-Panel Fluoroscopy O-arm–Guided Percutaneous Radiofrequency Cordotomy: A New Technique for the Treatment of Unilateral Cancer Pain

O-arm cordotomy

Neurosurgery 72[ONS Suppl 1]:ons27–ons34, 2013

Percutaneous radiofrequency cordotomy (PRFC) involves controlled ablation of the anterolateral quadrant of the spinal cord, thereby relieving pain. Evolving from a morbid open surgery, the procedure has been modernized through the application of physiological target confirmation, well-regulated thermal ablation, and improved intraoperative imaging.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the utility in PRFC of a new high-resolution, portable flatpanel fluoroscopic imaging technology, the O-arm Imaging System. The O-arm allows traditional 2-dimensional fluoroscopy in addition to axial and 3-dimensional reconstructed computed tomography imaging.

METHODS: PRFC was performed using the O-arm Imaging System in 6 patients with unilateral cancer pain.

RESULTS: Patients experienced 90% to 100% initial pain relief, with 50% to 100% sustained pain relief at the time of death at 2 to 12 months. There were no complications.

CONCLUSION: Portable flat-panel fluoroscopy allows high-resolution, readily updated computed tomography and fluoroscopic image guidance during PRFC. Use of this new technology may assist neurosurgeons in providing an important analgesic intervention at centers possessing the imaging technology.