Pulsatile Dynamics of the Optic Nerve Sheath and Intracranial Pressure

ONS and ICP

Neurosurgery 79:100–107, 2016

Raised intracranial pressure (ICP) may lead to increased stiffness of the optic nerve sheath (ONS).

OBJECTIVE: To develop a method for analyzing ONS dynamics from transorbital ultrasound and investigate a potential difference between patients with raised ICP vs normal ICP.

METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data from 16 patients (#12 years old) for whom ultrasound image sequences of the ONS had been acquired from both eyes just before invasive measurement of ICP. Eight patients had an ICP $20 mm Hg. The transverse motion on each side of the ONS was estimated from ultrasound, and Fourier analysis was used to extract the magnitude of the displacement corresponding to the heart rate. By calculating the normalized absolute difference between the displacements on each side of the ONS, a measure of ONS deformation was obtained. This parameter was referred to as the deformability index. According to our hypothesis, because deformability is inversely related to stiffness, we expected this parameter to be lower for ICP $20 mm Hg compared with ICP ,20 mm Hg. The one-sided Mann-Whitney U test was used for statistical comparison.

RESULTS: The deformability index was significantly lower in the group with ICP $20 mm Hg (median value 0.11 vs 0.24; P = .002).

CONCLUSION: We present a method for assessment of ONS pulsatile dynamics using transorbital ultrasound imaging. A significant difference was noted between the patient groups, indicating that deformability of the ONS may be relevant as a noninvasive marker of raised ICP. The clinical implications are promising and should be investigated in future clinical studies.

Identification of the internal carotid artery at the superior part of the cavernous sinus during endoscopic endonasal cavernous sinus tumor surgery

Identification of the internal carotid artery in cavernous sinus during endoscopic endonasal cavernous sinus tumor surgery

Acta Neurochir (2014) 156:475–479

Identification of the internal carotid artery (ICA) is essential for successful endoscopic endonasal cavernous sinus tumor surgery. This study aimed to develop a method for identifying the ICA in cavernous sinus tumors at the superior part of the cavernous sinus.

Methods Ten fresh cadavers were studied with a 4-mm 0° and 30° endoscope to identify surgical landmarks of the ICA in the cavernous sinus. Clinical cases of cavernous sinus tumors were surgically treated using an endoscopic transpterygoid approach.

Results Anatomical study indicated the ICA at the superior part of the cavernous sinus can be identified using three steps: 1) exposure of the optic nerve sheath by drilling the optic canal; 2) identification of the proximal orifice of the optic nerve sheath at the transition of the optic nerve sheath and dura mater of the tuberculum sellae; and 3) identification of the clinoid segment of the ICA at the distal dural ring just below the proximal orifice of the optic nerve sheath. Although the ICA was encased and transposed by tumors in preliminary surgical cases, the clinoid segment of the ICA was safely exposed at the superior part of the cavernous sinus using this method.

Conclusions Dural structures around the cavernous sinus are key to identifying the ICA at the superior part of the cavernous sinus. This method is expected to reduce the risk of ICA injury during endoscopic endonasal surgery for cavernous sinus tumors.