Papillary Tumor of the Pineal Region: Systematic Review and Analysis of Prognostic Factors

Neurosurgery, Volume 85, Issue 3, September 2019: E420–E429

Clinical outcomes and biological behavior of papillary tumors of the pineal region (PTPR) are still under investigation. The best therapeutic strategy has not been defined.

OBJECTIVE: To perform a comprehensive patient-level analysis of all PTPR cases and identify their clinical features, treatment options, and prognostic factors.

METHODS: A search of the medical databases for case series and reports on PTPRs from January 2003 to June 2017 was performed. Data addressing PTPR’s clinical presentation, imaging, treatment, and histological features were. Variables associated with the primary outcome of 36-mo survival were identified through Cox regression models.

RESULTS: The initial search yielded 1164 studies, of which 71 were included (60 case reports and 11 case series), containing 177 patients (mean age 33.0 ± 15.3 yr and 53.2% male). Intracranial hypertension and hydrocephalus prevailed as the clinical picture. Surgery was performed on 82.0% and gross total resection (GTR) was achieved on 71.4%. A total of 56.8% recurred after a median 29-mo (quartiles 10.5-45.5). The 36-mo survival rate was 83.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 76.2-89.2%). Good functional outcomes (Glasgow Outcome Scale 4/5) were observed in 60.0%. The variables of interest were inconsistently reported and the multivariable analysis final sample was 133 patients. After adjustment for age, tumor size (each additional centimeter, hazard ratio [HR] 1.99, 95% CI 1.12-3.53, P = .019) and surgical treatment (HR 0.16, 95% CI 0.05-0.45, P = .001) were associated with 36-mo survival.

CONCLUSION: Tumor size and surgery are associated with improvement in 36-mo survival. We did not observe any significant benefits from GTR or adjuvant treatments.

Pineal region tumors: an optimal approach for simultaneous endoscopic third ventriculostomy and biopsy

Neurosurg Focus 30 (4):E3, 2011. DOI: 10.3171/2011.2.FOCUS10301

Simultaneous endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) and tumor biopsy is a widely accepted therapeutic and diagnostic procedure for patients with noncommunicating hydrocephalus secondary to a pineal region tumor. Multiple approaches have been advocated, including the use of a steerable fiberoptic or rigid lens endoscope via 1 or 2 trajectories. However, the optimal approach has not been established based on the individual anatomical characteristics of the patient.

 Methods. A retrospective review of patients undergoing simultaneous ETV and tumor biopsy was undertaken. Preoperative MR images were examined to measure the width of the anterior third ventricle and maximal diameters of the tumor, Monro foramen (right), and massa intermedia. The distances between the tumor and massa intermedia, tumor and anterior commissure, midbrain and massa intermedia, and the dorsum sella and anterior commissure were also recorded. Single and dual trajectory approaches were compared using paired t-tests for each parameter.

Results. Over an 8-year interval, 15 patients underwent simultaneous ETV and tumor management. These patients ranged from 6 to 71 years of age (mean 36.7 years); 5 were younger than 18 years of age. Seven were treated using a dual trajectory approach, and 8 were treated using a single trajectory approach. All cases were completed without complications or the need for an additional CSF diversionary procedure within 6 months. The diagnostic yield at biopsy was 86.7%. There were no statistically significant differences between the single and dual trajectory groups for the measured parameters. However, the dual trajectory group demonstrated a larger anterior third ventricular diameter (1.43 vs 1.21 cm, p = 0.29). The single trajectory group trended toward a smaller tumor– anterior commissure interval (2.23 vs 2.51 cm, p = 0.24) and a larger dorsum sella–anterior commissure distance (1.67 vs 1.49 cm, p = 0.28).

Conclusions. These data confirm the safety and diagnostic efficacy of simultaneous ETV and biopsy for tumors of the pineal region. Although no statistically significant differences were seen in the authors’ recorded measurements, several trends suggest a role for a tailored approach to selecting a single or dual trajectory approach when using a rigid endoscope