Recurrence and risk factors of posterior communicating artery aneurysms after endovascular treatment

Acta Neurochirurgica (2021) 163:2319–2326

Endovascular treatment (EVT) of posterior communicating artery aneurysms (PcomA) is challenging because of posterior communicating artery (Pcom) architecture. Additionally, these aneurysms have a high risk of recanalization compared with those located elsewhere.

Methods The radiographic findings of 171 patients treated with EVT at two institutions were retrospectively reviewed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed, and subgroup analyses were performed based on Pcom characteristics.

Results Recanalization of PcomAs occurred in 53 patients (30.9%). Seven patients (4.0%) were retreated (six endovascularly and one with microsurgical clipping). The mean follow-up duration was 27.7 months (range: 3.5–78.6). The maximum diameter (odds ratio [OR] 1.23, P = .006, 95% CI 1.07–1.44), a Raymond–Roy classification of grade II or III (OR 2.26, P = .03, 95% CI 1.08–4.82), and the presence of reinforcement (balloon or/and stent, OR 0.44, P = .03, 95% CI 0.20–0.91) were associated with recanalization using multivariate logistic regression. Significant differences were found in maximum aneurysm diameter (P = .03) between normal- and fetal-type Pcoms on analysis of variance.

Conclusions The recanalization rate of PcomAs after EVT was 30.9%; the retreatment rate was 4.0%. Maximum diameter, Raymond–Roy classification, and presence of reinforcement were significantly associated with recanalization but not associated with fetal-type Pcom. Aneurysm size was larger in patients with a fetal-type Pcom than in those with a normal Pcom. Pcom size was not related to recanalization rate.

Is 3 years adequate for tracking completely occluded coiled aneurysms?

J Neurosurg 133:758–764, 2020

The authors conducted a study to ascertain the long-term durability of coiled aneurysms completely occluded at 36 months’ follow-up given the potential for delayed recanalization.

METHODS In this retrospective review, the authors examined 299 patients with 339 aneurysms, all shown to be completely occluded at 36 months on follow-up images obtained between 2011 and 2013. Medical records and radiological data acquired during the extended monitoring period (mean 74.3 ± 22.5 months) were retrieved, and the authors analyzed the incidence of (including mean annual risk) and risk factors for delayed recanalization.

RESULTS A total of 5 coiled aneurysms (1.5%) occluded completely at 36 months showed recanalization (0.46% per aneurysm-year) during the long-term surveillance period (1081.9 aneurysm-years), 2 surfacing within 60 months and 3 developing thereafter. Four showed minor recanalization, with only one instance of major recanalization. The latter involved the posterior communicating artery as an apparent de novo lesion, arising at the neck of a firmly coiled sac, and was unrelated to coil compaction or growth. Additional embolization was undertaken. In a multivariate analysis, a second embolization for a recurrent aneurysm (HR = 22.088, p = 0.003) independently correlated with delayed recanalization.

CONCLUSIONS Almost all coiled aneurysms (98.5%) showing complete occlusion at 36 months postembolization proved to be stable during extended observation. However, recurrent aneurysms were predisposed to delayed recanalization. Given the low probability yet seriousness of delayed recanalization and the possibility of de novo aneurysm formation, careful monitoring may be still considered in this setting but at less frequent intervals beyond 36 months.

Validation of a System to Predict Recanalization After Endovascular Treatment of Intracranial Aneurysms


Neurosurgery 77:168–174, 2015

With increasing use of endovascular techniques in the treatment of ruptured and unruptured aneurysms, the issue of obliteration efficacy has become increasingly important. We have previously reported the Aneurysm Recanalization Stratification Scale, which uses accessible predictors including aneurysm-specific factors (size, rupture, and intraluminal thrombosis) and treatment-related features (treatment modality and immediate angiographic result) to predict retreatment risk after endovascular therapy.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the external validity of the Aneurysm Recanalization Stratification Scale.

METHODS: External validity was assessed in independent cohorts from 4 centers in the United States and Canada where endovascular and open neurovascular procedures are performed, and in a multicenter cohort of 1543 patients. Probability of retreatment stratified by risk score was derived for each center and the combined multicenter cohort.

RESULTS: Despite moderate variability in retreatment rate among centers (29.5%, 9.9%, 9.6%, 26.3%, 19.7%, and 18.3%), the Aneurysm Recanalization Stratification Scale demonstrated good predictive value with C-statistics of 0.799, 0.943, 0.780, 0.695, 0.755, and 0.719 for each center and the combined cohort, respectively. Probability of retreatment stratified by risk score for the combined cohort is as follows: -2, 4.9%; -1, 5.7%; 0, 5.8%; 1, 13.1%; 2, 19.2%; 3, 34.9%; 4, 32.7%; 5, 73.2%; 6, 89.5%; and 7, 100.0%.

CONCLUSION: Surgical decision-making and patient-centered informed consent require comprehensive and accessible information on treatment efficacy. The Aneurysm Recanalization Stratification Scale is a valid prognostic index. This is the first comprehensive model that has been developed to quantitatively predict retreatment risk following endovascular therapy.

Endovascular and Surgical Treatment of Internal Carotid Bifurcation Aneurysms: Comparison of Results, Outcome, and Mid-Term Follow-up

Categorization of aneurysms by their origin and projection

Neurosurgery 76:540–551, 2015

Aneurysms of the internal carotid artery (ICA) bifurcation are rare, and no studies have compared patient outcomes after endovascular vs surgical treatment.

OBJECTIVE: To report the safety, efficacy, and follow-up outcome of these 2 treatment options for patients with ICA bifurcation aneurysms.

METHODS: Patient and aneurysm characteristics, treatment results, and follow-up outcomes (at 30 months) were analyzed from patient records and review of imaging findings.

RESULTS: A total of 58 patients with ICA bifurcation aneurysms were treated. By interdisciplinary consensus, 30 aneurysms were assigned for coiling and 28 for clipping. Patients who underwent surgical clipping were younger and had larger aneurysms. More patients were assigned to coiling if their aneurysms originated only from the ICA bifurcation or projected superiorly. For the combined angiographic endpoint, complete and nearly complete occlusion (Raymond-Roy I + II), similar rates of 96% (coiling) or 100% (clipping) could be achieved. Raymond-Roy I occlusion occurred more often after clipping (79% vs 41% coiling). Follow-up of the endovascular group showed minor recanalization of the aneurysm neck (Raymond-Roy II) in 42%. One patient (4%) showed a major recanalization (Raymond-Roy III) and needed re-treatment. For incidental findings, no bleeding complications or new persistent neurological deficits occurred during follow-up.

CONCLUSION: Treatment of ICA bifurcation aneurysms after interdisciplinary assignment to clipping or coiling is effective and safe. Despite significantly more minor recanalizations after coiling, the re-treatment rate was very low, and no bleeding was observed during follow-up. Multivariate analysis revealed that origin only from the ICA bifurcation was an independent predictor of aneurysm recanalization after endovascular treatment.

Stratification of Recanalization for Patients With Endovascular Treatment of Intracranial Aneurysms

Recanalization for Patients With Endovascular Treatment of Intracranial Aneurysms

Neurosurgery 76:390–395, 2015

With the increasing use of endovascular techniques in the treatment of both ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms, the issue of obliteration efficacy has become increasingly important.

OBJECTIVE: To systematically develop a comprehensive model for predicting retreatment with various types of endovascular treatment.

METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed medical records that were prospectively collected for 305 patients who received endovascular treatment for intracranial aneurysms from 2007 to 2013. Multivariable logistic regression was performed on candidate predictors identified by univariable screening analysis to detect independent predictors of retreatment. A composite risk score was constructed based on the proportional contribution of independent predictors in the multivariable model.

RESULTS: Size (.10 mm), aneurysm rupture, stent assistance, and posttreatment degree of aneurysm occlusion were independently associated with retreatment, whereas intraluminal thrombosis and flow diversion demonstrated a trend toward retreatment. The Aneurysm Recanalization Stratification Scale was constructed by assigning the following weights to statistically and clinically significant predictors: aneurysm-specific factors: size (.10 mm), 2 points; rupture, 2 points; presence of thrombus, 2 points. Treatment-related factors were stent assistance, 21 point; flow diversion, 22 points; Raymond Roy occlusion class 2, 1 point; Raymond Roy occlusion class 3, 2 points. This scale demonstrated good discrimination with a C-statistic of 0.799.

CONCLUSION: Surgical decision making and patient-centered informed consent require comprehensive and accessible information on treatment efficacy. We constructed the Aneurysm Recanalization Stratification Scale to enhance this decisionmaking process. This is the first comprehensive model that has been developed to quantitatively predict the risk of retreatment after endovascular therapy.

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