Laser Interstitial Thermal Therapy for First-Line Treatment of Surgically Accessible Recurrent Glioblastoma: Outcomes Compared With a Surgical Cohort

Neurosurgery 91:701–709, 2022

Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) for glioblastoma (GBM) has been reserved for poor surgical candidates and deep “inoperable” lesions. We present the first reported series of LITT for surgically accessible recurrent GBM (rGBM) that would otherwise be treated with surgical resection.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of LITT for unifocal, lobar, first-time rGBM compared with a similar surgical cohort.

METHODS: A retrospective institutional database was used to identify patients with unifocal, lobar, first-time rGBM who underwent LITT or resection between 2013 and 2020. Clinical and volumetric lesional characteristics were compared between cohorts. Subgroup analysis of patients with lesions ≤20 cm 3 was also completed. Primary outcomes were overall survival and progression-free survival.

RESULTS: Of the 744 patients with rGBM treated from 2013 to 2020, a LITT cohort of 17 patients were compared with 23 similar surgical patients. There were no differences in baseline characteristics, although lesions were larger in the surgical cohort (7.54 vs 4.37 cm3 , P = .017). Despite differences in lesion size, both cohorts had similar extents of ablation/resection (90.7% vs 95.1%, P = .739). Overall survival (14.1 vs 13.8 months, P = .578) and progression-free survival (3.7 vs 3.3 months, P = 0. 495) were similar. LITT patients had significantly shorter hospital stays (2.2 vs 3.0 days, P = .004). Subgroup analysis of patients with lesions ≤20 cm 3 showed similar outcomes, with LITT allowing for significantly shorter hospital stays.

CONCLUSION: We found no difference in survival outcomes or morbidity between LITT and repeat surgery for surgically accessible rGBM while LITT resulted in shorter hospital stays and more efficient postoperative care.



A Systematic Review of Repeat Microvascular Decompression for Recurrent or Persistent Trigeminal Neuralgia

World Neurosurg. (2022) 158:226-233

When conservative therapy fails, microvascular decompression (MVD) has been the preferred treatment of primary trigeminal neuralgia (TN). However, the management of recurrent or persistent TN after MVD can often be difficult. The purpose of the present systematic review was to objectively analyze and summarize the reported literature regarding the feasibility of repeat MVD.

METHODS: We conducted a database search using the MEDLINE and PubMed databases until July 2020. The search terms used for title and abstract screening were as follows: “recurrent trigeminal neuralgia,” “persistent trigeminal neuralgia,” “repeat microvascular decompression,” and “reexploration.” The inclusion criteria for the systematic review were as follows: clinical studies (excluding case studies), repeat MVD treatment of TN, and studies that had recorded the pain relief outcomes, operative findings, and complications (if any).

RESULTS: Of the 1771 initial results obtained, we performed a full text screening of 43 studies, and, ultimately, 19 were deemed eligible. A total of 2247 patients had undergone MVD for TN, of whom, 311 had experienced recurrence (13.84%). Of the 311 patients, 178 had undergone repeat MVD. The average painfree interval was 27.75 months after the first MVD. The effective rate of repeat MVD was 91.66%, and 71.48% of the patients had had obvious compression found at repeat MVD. The postoperative complication rate after repeat MVD was 37.31% and was due to postoperative adhesions around the nerve and nerve injury caused by partial sensory rhizotomy. The most common complication after repeat MVD was facial numbness (21.89%), although the incidence of other complications was <5%.

CONCLUSIONS: For patients with recurrent or persistent pain after MVD, the findings from our systematic review support that repeat MVD remains a feasible treatment for recurrent or persistent TN.

Recurrent brainstem cavernous malformations following primary resection

J Neurosurg 135:671–682, 2021

Proximity of brainstem cavernous malformations (BSCMs) to tracts and cranial nerve nuclei make it costly to transgress normal tissue in accessing the lesion or disrupting normal tissue adjacent to the lesion in the separation plane. This interplay between tissue sensitivity and extreme eloquence makes it difficult to avoid leaving a remnant on occasion. Recurrences require operative intervention, which may increase morbidity, lengthen recovery, and add to overall costs. An approximately 20-year experience with patients with recurrent BSCM lesions following primary microsurgical resection was reviewed.

METHODS A prospectively maintained database of 802 patients who underwent microsurgical resection of cerebral cavernous malformations during 1997–2018 was queried to identify 213 patients with BSCMs. A retrospective chart review was conducted for patients with recurrent BSCM after primary resection who required a second surgery.

RESULTS Fourteen of 213 patients (6.6%) underwent repeat resection for recurrent BSCM. Thirty-four hemorrhagic events were observed among these 14 patients over 576 patient-years (recurrent hemorrhage rate, 5.9% per year; median discrete hemorrhagic events, 2; median time to rehemorrhage, 897 days). BSCM occurred in the pons in 10 cases, midbrain in 2 cases, and medulla in 2 cases. A blind spot in the operative corridor was the most common cause of residual BSCM (9 patients). All recurrent BSCMs were removed completely, although 2 patients each required 2 operations to treat recurrence. Twelve patients had unchanged or improved modified Rankin Scale scores at last clinical evaluation compared with admission, and 2 patients had worse scores. Recurrence was more common among patients who were operated on in the first versus the second half of the series (8.5% vs 4.7%).

CONCLUSIONS The 6.6% rate of BSCM recurrence requiring reoperation reflects the fine lines between complete resection and recurrence and between safe and harmful surgery. The detection of remnants is difficult postoperatively and remains so even at 6 months when the resection bed has healed. The 5.9% annual hemorrhage risk associated with recurrent BSCM in this experience is consistent with that reported for unoperated BSCMs. The right-angle method helps to anticipate blind spots and meticulously inspect the resection cavity for residual BSCM during surgery. A low percentage of recurrent BSCM (5%–10%) ensures ongoing effort toward an acceptable balance of safety and completeness.

Surgical outcomes after reoperation for recurrent non–skull base meningiomas

J Neurosurg 131:1179–1187, 2019

Recurrent meningiomas are primarily managed with radiation therapy or repeat resection. Surgical morbidity after reoperation for recurrent meningiomas is poorly understood. Thus, the objective of this study was to report surgical outcomes after reoperation for recurrent non–skull base meningiomas.

METHODS A retrospective review of patients was performed. Inclusion criteria were patients with recurrent meningioma who had prior resection and supratentorial non–skull base location. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression and recursive partitioning analysis were used to identify risk factors for surgical complications.

RESULTS The authors identified 67 patients who underwent 111 reoperations for recurrent supratentorial non–skull base meningiomas. The median age was 53 years, 49% were female, and the median follow-up was 9.8 years. The most common presenting symptoms were headache, weakness, and seizure. The WHO grade after the last reoperation was grade I in 22% of cases, grade II in 51%, and grade III in 27%. The tumor grade increased at reoperation in 22% of cases. Tumors were located on the convexity (52%), parasagittal (33%), falx (31%), and multifocal (19%) locations. Tumors involved the middle third of the sagittal plane in 52% of cases. In the 111 reoperations, 48 complications occurred in 32 patients (48%). There were 26 (54%) complications requiring surgical intervention. There was no perioperative mortality. Complications included neurological deficits (14% total, 8% permanent), wound dehiscence/infection (14%), and CSF leak/pseudomeningocele/hydrocephalus (9%). Tumors that involved the middle third of the sagittal plane (OR 6.97, 95% CI 1.5–32.0, p = 0.006) and presentation with cognitive changes (OR 20.7, 95% CI 2.3–182.7, p = 0.001) were significantly associated with complication occurrence on multivariate analysis. The median survival after the first reoperation was 11.5 years, and the 2-, 5-, and 10-year Kaplan-Meier survival rates were 91.0%, 68.8%, and 50.0%, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS Reoperation for recurrent supratentorial non–skull base meningioma is associated with a high rate of complications. Patients with cognitive changes and tumors that overlap the middle third of the sagittal plane are at increased risk of complications. Nevertheless, excellent long-term survival can be achieved without perioperative mortality.

Surgical Clipping of Previously Ruptured, Coiled Aneurysms: Outcome Assessment in 53 Patients

World Neurosurg. (2018) 120:e203-e211

Occasionally, previously coiled aneurysms will require secondary treatment with surgical clipping, representing a more complicated aneurysm to treat than the naïve aneurysm. Patients who initially presented with a ruptured aneurysm may pose an even riskier group to treat than those with unruptured previously coiled aneurysms, given their potentially higher risk for rerupture. The objective of this study was to assess the clinical outcomes of patients who undergo microsurgical clipping of ruptured previously coiled cerebral aneurysms. In addition, we present a thorough review of the literature.

METHODS: A total of 53 patients from a single institution who initially presented with a subarachnoid hemorrhage and underwent surgical clipping of a previously coiled aneurysm between December 1997 and December 2014 were studied. Clinical features, hospital course, and preoperative and most recent functional status (Glasgow Outcome Scale score) were reviewed retrospectively.

RESULTS: The mean time interval from coiling to clipping was 2.6 years, and mean follow-up was 5.5 years (range, 0.1e14.7 years). Five patients (9.8%) presented with rebleed prior to clipping. Most patients (79.3%, 42/53) experienced good neurologic outcomes. Most showed no change (81%, 43/53) or improvement (13%, 7/53) in functional status after microsurgical clipping. One patient (2%) deteriorated clinically, and there were 2 mortalities (4%).

CONCLUSIONS: Microsurgical clipping of previously ruptured, coiled aneurysms is a promising treatment method with favorable clinical outcomes

Minimally invasive tubular microdiscectomy for recurrent lumbar disc herniation

MIS discectomy

J Neurosurg Spine 24:48–53, 2016

The aim of the study was to investigate the safety and ef cacy of minimally invasive tubular microdiscec- tomy for the treatment of recurrent lumbar disc herniation (LDH). As opposed to endoscopic techniques, namely micro- endoscopic and endoscopic transforaminal discectomy, this microscopically assisted technique has never been used for the treatment of recurrent LDH.

Methods: Thirty consecutive patients who underwent minimally invasive tubular microdiscectomy for recurrent LDH were included in the study. The preoperative and postoperative visual analog scale (VAS) scores for pain, the clinical outcome according to modified Macnab criteria, and complications were analyzed retrospectively. The minimum follow-up was 1.5 years. Student t-test with paired samples was used for the statistical comparison of pre- and postoperative VAS scores. A p value < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.

Results: The mean operating time was 90 ± 35 minutes. The VAS score for leg pain was significantly reduced from 5.9 ± 2.1 preoperatively to 1.7 ± 1.3 postoperatively (p < 0.001). The overall success rate (excellent or good outcome according to Macnab criteria) was 90%. Incidental durotomy occurred in 5 patients (16.7%) without neurological consequences, CSF fistula, or negative influence to the clinical outcome. Instability occurred in 2 patients (6.7%).

Conclusions: The clinical outcome of minimally invasive tubular microdiscectomy is comparable to the reported success rates of other minimally invasive techniques. The dural tear rate is not associated to higher morbidity or worse outcome. The technique is an equally effective and safe treatment option for recurrent LDH.

Repeat microvascular decompression for recurrent idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia


DOI: 10.3171/2014.7.JNS132667

Microvascular decompression (MVD) is considered the method of choice to treat idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (TN) refractory to medical treatment. However, repeat MVD for recurrent TN is not well established. In this paper, the authors describe a large case series in which patients underwent repeat MVD for recurrent TN, focusing on outcome, risk factors, and complication rates.

Methods. Between 1990 and 2012, a total of 33 consecutive patients underwent repeat MVD for recurrent TN at the University Medical Center Groningen. The authors performed a retrospective chart review and telephone interviews. Risk factors were analyzed by binary logistic regression analysis.

Results. After 12 months of follow-up, 22 (67%) operations were successful, of which 19 patients were completely free of pain without medication. With multivariate analysis significant risk factors for success were older age (OR 1.11, p < 0.01) and direct absence of pain after repeat MVD (OR 25.2, p < 0.01). Previous neurodestructive procedures did not influence success rates. Facial numbness occurred in 9 patients (27%), while other morbidity was minimal. There was no mortality.

Conclusions. This study demonstrates that repeat MVD is a feasible therapeutic option with good chances of success, even in patients who have undergone neurodestructive procedures. Complication rates, particularly facial numbness, can be avoided if only a limited neurolysis is performed.