Coronal balance with circumferential minimally invasive spinal deformity surgery for the treatment of degenerative scoliosis

J Neurosurg Spine 34:879–887, 2021

Coronal malalignment (CM) in adult spinal deformity is associated with poor outcomes and remains underappreciated in the literature. Recent attempts at classifying CM indicate that some coronal shifts may be more difficult to treat than others. To date, outcomes for circumferential minimally invasive surgery (cMIS) of the spine in the context of these new CM classifications are unreported.

METHODS A retrospective evaluation of patients with degenerative scoliosis (Cobb angle > 20 ) consecutively treated with cMIS at a single institution was performed. Preoperative and 1-year postoperative standing radiographs were used to make the comparisons. Clinical outcome measures were compared. Patients were subgrouped according to the preoperative distance between their C7 plumb line and central sacral vertical line (C7-CSVL) as either coronally aligned (type A, C7-CSVL < 3 cm); shifted ≥ 3 cm toward the concavity (type B); or shifted ≥ 3 cm toward the convexity (type C) of the main lumbar curve.

RESULTS Forty-two patients were included (mean age 67.7 years). Twenty-six patients (62%) were classified as type A, 5 patients (12%) as type B, and 11 patients (26%) as type C. An average of 4.9 segments were treated. No type A patients developed postoperative CM. All type B patients had CM correction. Six of the 11 type C patients had CM after surgery. Overall, there was an improvement in the C7-CSVL (from 2.4 to 1.8 cm, p = 0.04). Among subgroups, only type B patients improved (from 4.5 to 0.8 cm, p = 0.002); no difference was seen for type A patients (from 1.2 to 1.4 cm, p = 0.32) or type C patients (from 4.3 to 3.1 cm, p = 0.11). Comparing type C patients with postoperative CM versus those without postoperative CM, patients with CM had worse visual analog scale back scores at 1 year (5 vs 1, p = 0.01). Moreover, they had higher postoperative L4 tilt angles (11  vs 5 , p = 0.01), indicating inadequate correction of the lumbosacral fractional curve.

CONCLUSIONS cMIS improved coronal alignment, curve magnitudes, and clinical outcomes among patients with degenerative scoliosis. It did not result in CM in type A patients and was successful at improving the C7-CSVL in type B patients. Type C patients remain the most difficult to treat coronally, with worse visual analog scale back pain scores in those with postoperative CM. Regional coronal restoration of the lumbosacral fracture curve should be the focus of correction in cMIS for these patients.


Volumetric tumor growth rates of meningiomas involving the intracranial venous sinuses

Acta Neurochirurgica (2018) 160:1531–1538

There is currently no consensus as to whether meningiomas located inside the venous sinuses should be aggressively or conservatively treated. The goals of this study were to identify how sinus-invading meningiomas grow, report and compare growth rates of tumor components inside and outside the different venous sinuses, identify risk factors associated with increased tumor growth, and determine the effects of the extent of tumor resection on recurrence for meningiomas that invade the dural venous sinuses.

Methods Adult patients who underwent primary, non-biopsy resection of a WHO grade 1 meningioma invading the dural venous sinuses at a tertiary care institution between 2007 and 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Rates of tumor growth were fit to several growth models to evaluate the most accurate model. Cohen’s d analysis was used to identify associations with increased growth of tumor in the venous sinuses. Logistic regression was used to compare extent of resection with recurrence.

Results Of the 68 patients included in the study, 34 patients had postoperative residual tumors in the venous sinuses that were measured over time. The growth model that best fit the growth of intrasinus meningiomas was the Gompertzian growth model (r2 = 0.93). The annual growth rate of meningiomas inside the sinuses was 7.3%, compared to extrasinus tumors with 13.6% growth per year. The only factor significantly associated with increased tumor growth in sinuses was preoperative embolization (effect sizes (ES) [95% CI], 1.874 [7.633–46.735], p = 0.008).

Conclusions This study shows that meningiomas involving the venous sinuses have a Gompertzian-type growth with early exponential growth followed by a slower growth rate that plateaus when they reach a certain size. Overall, the growth rate of the intrasinus portion is low (7.3%), which is half of the reported growth rates for other studies involving primarily extrasinus tumors.