The influence of tumor topography on the surgical outcome of craniopharyngiomas

J Neurosurg 139:1247–1257, 2023

Various topographical classifications for craniopharyngioma have been proposed based on their relationship with optic chiasm and the third ventricular floor. There is a paucity of literature evaluating the surgical outcome based on tumor topography. This study aims to compare the surgical outcomes of retrochiasmatic craniopharyngiomas (RCPs) and nonretrochiasmatic craniopharyngiomas (non-RCPs).

METHODS This retrospective study includes newly diagnosed patients with craniopharyngioma who underwent surgery between January 2000 and December 2015. Clinical features, the extent of resection (EOR), surgical outcomes, tumor recurrence, and progression-free survival (PFS) of craniopharyngiomas were compared with respect to their relationship to the optic chiasm and third ventricular floor.

RESULTS The authors identified RCPs in 104 and non-RCPs in 33 patients. RCPs were significantly larger and more associated with hydrocephalus than were non-RCPs (p < 0.001) at the time of diagnosis. Puget grade 2 hypothalamic involvement was more frequent with RCPs. EOR and PFS following either subtotal resection (p = 0.07) or gross-total resection (p = 0.7) were comparable between RCPs and non-RCPs. There was no significant difference in the postoperative visual outcome. Resection of RCPs resulted in higher postoperative hypopituitarism (64% vs 42%, p = 0.01) and hypothalamic dysfunction (18% vs 3%, p = 0.02). Location of the tumor, either retrochiasmatic (HR 0.5; 95% CI 0.14–2.2; p = 0.4) or nonretrochiasmatic (HR 1.3; 95% CI 0.3–5.5; p = 0.6), did not show association with recurrence. RCPs with extraand intraventricular components (type 3b) had a higher incidence of postoperative hypothalamic morbidities (p = 0.01) and tumor recurrence (36% vs 19%; p = 0.05) during follow-up than the extraventricular (type 3a) RCP. Between prechiasmatic and infrachiasmatic/intrasellar craniopharyngiomas, EOR (p = 0.7), postoperative diabetes insipidus (p = 0.4), endocrinological outcome (p = 0.7), and recurrence (p = 0.1) were comparable. The patients with complex multicompartmental tumors had a lower rate of gross-total resection (25%, p = 0.02) and a higher incidence of tumor recurrence (75%, p = 0.004) than the rest.

CONCLUSIONS The tumor topography can influence the postoperative outcome. RCPs can be associated with a higher incidence of hypopituitarism and hypothalamic morbidities postoperatively. The influence of topography on EOR and tumor recurrence is controversial. However, this study did not find a significant difference in EOR and tumor recurrence between RCPs and non-RCPs. PFS and overall mortality are also comparable.

Predictors of Progression-Free Survival in Patients With Spinal Intramedullary Ependymoma: A Multicenter Retrospective Study by the Neurospinal Society of Japan

Neurosurgery 93:1046–1056, 2023

Ependymoma is the most common spinal intramedullary tumor. Although clinical outcomes have been described in the literature, most of the reports were based on limited numbers of cases or been confined to institutional experience. The objective of this study was to analyze more detailed characteristics of spinal intramedullary ependymoma (SIE) and provide clinical factors associated with progression-free survival (PFS).

METHODS: This retrospective observational multicenter study included consecutive patients with SIE in the cervical or thoracic spine treated surgically at a total of 58 institutions between 2009 and 2020. The results of pathological diagnosis at each institute were confirmed, and patients with myxopapillary ependymoma, subependymoma, or unverified histopathology were strictly excluded from this study. Outcome measures included surgical data, surgery-related complications, postoperative systemic adverse events, postoperative adjuvant treatment, postoperative functional condition, and presence of recurrence.

RESULTS: This study included 324 cases of World Health Organization grade II (96.4%) and 12 cases of World Health Organization grade III (3.6%). Gross total resection (GTR) was achieved in 76.5% of cases. Radiation therapy (RT) was applied after surgery in 16 cases (4.8%), all of which received local RT and 5 of which underwent chemotherapy in combination. Functional outcomes were significantly affected by preoperative neurological symptoms, tumor location, extent of tumor resection, and recurrence. Multivariate regression analysis suggested that limited extent of tumor resection or recurrence resulted in poor functional outcomes. Multiple comparisons among the groups undergoing GTR, subtotal resection and biopsy, or partial resection of the tumor showed that the probability of PFS differed significantly between GTR and other extents of resection.

CONCLUSION: When GTR can be safely obtained in the surgery for SIE, functional maintenance and longer PFScan be expected.

 

Association of Preoperative Vascular Wall Imaging Patterns and Surgical Outcomes in Patients With Unruptured Intracranial Saccular Aneurysms

Neurosurgery 92:421–430, 2023

MR vascular wall imaging (VWI) may have prognostic value in patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs).

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the value of VWI as a predictor of surgical outcome in patients with UIAs.

METHODS: This prospective cohort study evaluated surgical outcomes in consecutive patients with UIAs who underwent surgical clipping at a single center. All participants underwent high-resolution VWI and were followed for at least 6 months. The primary clinical outcome was modified Rankin scale (mRS) score 6 months after surgery.

RESULTS: The number of patients in the no wall enhancement, uniformwall enhancement (UWE), and focal wall enhancement (FWE) groups was 37, 145, and 154, respectively. Incidence of postoperative complications was 15.5% in the FWE group, 12.4% in the UWE group, and 5.4% in the no wall enhancement group. The proportion of patients with mRS score >2 at the 6-month follow-up was significantly higher in the FWE group than in the UWE group (14.3% vs 6.9%; P = .0389). In the multivariate analysis, FWE (odds ratio, 2.573; 95% CI 1.001-6.612) and positive proximal artery remodeling (odds ratio, 10.56; 95% CI 2.237-49.83) were independent predictors of mRS score >2 at the 6-month follow-up.

CONCLUSION: Preoperative VWI can improve the surgeon’s understanding of aneurysm pathological structure. Type of aneurysmal wall enhancement on VWI is associated with clinical outcome and incidence of salvage anastomosis and surgical complications.

Long-term pain outcomes in elderly patients with trigeminal neuralgia: comparison of first-time microvascular decompression and stereotactic radiosurgery

Neurosurg Focus 49 (4):E23, 2020

Common surgical treatments for trigeminal neuralgia (TN) include microvascular decompression (MVD) and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). The use of MVD in elderly patients has been described but has yet to be prospectively compared to SRS, which is well-tolerated and noninvasive. The authors aimed to directly compare long-term pain control and adverse event rates for first-time surgical treatments for idiopathic TN in the elderly.

METHODS A prospectively collected database was reviewed for TN patients who had undergone treatment between 1997 and 2017 at a single institution. Standardized collection of preoperative demographics, surgical procedure, and postoperative outcomes was performed. Data analysis was limited to patients over the age of 65 years who had undergone a first-time procedure for the treatment of idiopathic TN with at least 1 year of follow-up.

RESULTS One hundred ninety-three patients meeting the study inclusion criteria underwent surgical procedures for TN during the study period (54 MVD, 24 MVD+Rhiz, 115 SRS). In patients in whom an artery was not compressing the trigeminal nerve during MVD, a partial sensory rhizotomy (MVD+Rhiz) was performed. Patients in the SRS cohort were older than those in the MVD and MVD+Rhiz cohorts (mean ± SD, 79.2 ± 7.8 vs 72.9 ± 5.7 and 70.9 ± 4.8 years, respectively; p < 0.0001) and had a higher mean Charlson Comorbidity Index (3.8 ± 1.1 vs 3.0 ± 0.9 and 2.9 ± 1.0, respectively; p < 0.0001). Immediate or short-term postoperative pain-free rates (Barrow Neurological Institute [BNI] pain intensity score I) were 98.1% for MVD, 95.8% for MVD+Rhiz, and 78.3% for SRS (p = 0.0008). At the last follow-up, 72.2% of MVD patients had a favorable outcome (BNI score I–IIIa) compared to 54.2% and 49.6% of MVD+Rhiz and SRS patients, respectively (p = 0.02). In total, 0 (0%) SRS, 5 (9.3%) MVD, and 1 (4.2%) MVD+Rhiz patients developed any adverse event. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis demonstrated that procedure type (p = 0.001) and postprocedure sensory change (p = 0.003) were statistically significantly associated with pain control.

CONCLUSIONS In this study cohort, patients who had undergone MVD had a statistically significantly longer duration of pain freedom than those who had undergone MVD+Rhiz or SRS as their first procedure. Fewer adverse events were seen after SRS, though the MVD-associated complication rate was comparable to published rates in younger patients. Overall, the results suggest that both MVD and SRS are effective options for the elderly, despite their advanced age. Treatment choice can be tailored to a patient’s unique condition and wishes.

 

Significance of degree of neurovascular compression in surgery for trigeminal neuralgia

J Neurosurg 133:411–416, 2020

The aim of this study was to identify preoperative imaging predictors of surgical success in patients with classic trigeminal neuralgia (cTN) undergoing microvascular decompression (MVD) via retrospective multivariate regression analysis.

METHODS All included patients met criteria for cTN and underwent preoperative MRI prior to MVD. MR images were blindly graded regarding the presence and severity (i.e., mild or severe) of neurovascular compression (NVC). All patients were contacted by telephone to determine their postoperative pain status.

RESULTS A total of 79 patients were included in this study. Sixty-two patients (78.5%) were pain-free without medication following MVD. The following findings were more commonly observed with the symptomatic nerve when compared to the contralateral asymptomatic nerve: NVC (any form), arterial compression alone, NVC along the proximal trigeminal nerve, and severe NVC (p values < 0.0001). The only imaging variable that was a statistically significant predictor of being pain-free without medication following MVD was severe NVC. Patients with severe NVC were 6.36 times more likely to be pain-free following MVD compared to those without severe NVC (p = 0.007).

CONCLUSIONS In patients with cTN undergoing MVD, severe NVC on preoperative MRI is a strong predictor of an excellent surgical outcome.

 

Posterior foraminotomy versus anterior decompression and fusion in patients with cervical degenerative disc disease with radiculopathy

J Neurosurg Spine 32:344–352, 2020

The long-term efficacy of posterior foraminotomy compared with anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF) for the treatment of degenerative disc disease with radiculopathy has not been previously investigated in a population-based cohort.

METHODS All patients in the national Swedish Spine Register (Swespine) from January 1, 2006, until November 15, 2017, with cervical degenerative disc disease and radiculopathy were assessed. Using propensity score matching, patients treated with posterior foraminotomy were compared with those undergoing ACDF. The primary outcome measure was the Neck Disability Index (NDI), a patient-reported outcome score ranging from 0% to 100%, with higher scores indicating greater disability. A minimal clinically important difference was defined as > 15%. Secondary outcomes were assessed with additional patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs).

RESULTS A total of 4368 patients (2136/2232 women/men) met the inclusion criteria. Posterior foraminotomy was performed in 647 patients, and 3721 patients underwent ACDF. After meticulous propensity score matching, 570 patients with a mean age of 54 years remained in each group. Both groups had substantial decreases in their NDI scores; however, after 5 years, the difference was not significant (2.3%, 95% CI −4.1% to 8.4%; p = 0.48) between the groups. There were no significant differences between the groups in EQ-5D or visual analog scale (VAS) for neck and arm scores. The secondary surgeries on the index level due to restenosis were more frequent in the foraminotomy group (6/100 patients vs 1/100), but on the adjacent segments there was no difference between groups (2/100).

CONCLUSIONS In patients with cervical degenerative disc disease and radiculopathy, both groups demonstrated clinical improvements at the 5-year follow-up that were comparable and did not achieve a clinically important difference from one another, even though the reoperation rate favored the ACDF group. This study design obtains population-based results, which are generalizable.

Surgical management and long-term outcome of intracranial subependymoma

Acta Neurochirurgica (2018) 160:1793–1799

Intracranial subependymomas account for 0.2–0.7% of central nervous system tumours and are classified as World Health Organization (WHO) grade 1 tumours. They are typically located within the ventricular system and are detected incidentally or with symptoms of hydrocephalus. Due to paucity of studies exploring this tumour type, the objective was to determine the medium- to long-term outcome of intracranial subependymoma treated by surgical resection.

Methods Retrospective case note review of adults with intracranial WHO grade 1 subependymoma diagnosed between 1990 and 2015 at the Walton Centre NHS Foundation Trust was undertaken. Tumour location, extent of resection (defined as gross total resection (GTR), sub-total resection (STR) or biopsy) and the WHO performance status at presentation and through follow-up were recorded.

Results Thirteen patients (7 males; 6 females) with a mean age of 47.6 years (range 33–58 years) and a median follow-up of 46 months (range 25–220 months) were studied. Eight patients had symptomatic tumours (headache, visual disturbance); five had incidental finding. Tumours were most commonly located in the fourth ventricle (n = 8). The performance status scores at diagnosis were 0 (n = 8) and 1 (n = 5). The early post-operative performance status scores at 6 months were 0 (n = 5) and 1 (n = 8) and at last follow-up were 0 (n = 11) and 1 (n = 2). There was no evidence of tumour re-growth following GTR or STR. The commonest complication was hydrocephalus (n = 3).

Conclusion Subependymoma are indolent tumours. No patients exhibited a worsening of performance status at medium- to longterm follow-up and there were no tumour recurrence suggesting a shorter follow-up time may be sufficient. Surgical resection is indicated for symptomatic tumours or those without a clear imaging diagnosis. Incidental intraventricular subependymoma can be managed conservatively through MRI surveillance.

Clival chordomas: considerations after 16 years of endoscopic endonasal surgery

J Neurosurg 128:329–338, 2018

In the past decade, the role of the endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) has relevantly evolved for skull base tumors. In this study, the authors review their surgical experience with using an EEA in the treatment of clival chordomas, which are deep and infiltrative skull base lesions, and they highlight the advantages and limitations of this ventral approach.

METHODS All consecutive cases of chordoma treated with an EEA between 1998 and 2015 at a single institution are included in this study. Preoperative assessment consisted of neuroimaging (MRI and CT with angiography sequences) and endocrinological, neurological, and ophthalmological evaluations, which were repeated 3 months after surgery and annually thereafter. Postoperative adjuvant therapies were considered.

RESULTS Sixty-five patients (male/female ratio 1:0.9) were included in this study. The median age was 48 years (range 9–80 years). Gross-total resection (GTR) was achieved in 47 cases (58.7%). On univariate analysis, primary procedures (p = 0.001), location in the superior or middle third of the clivus (p = 0.043), extradural location (p = 0.035), and histology of conventional chordomas (p = 0.013) were associated with a higher rate of GTR. The complication rate was 15.1%, and there were no perioperative deaths. Most complications did not result in permanent sequelae and included 2 CSF leaks (2.5%), 5 transient cranial nerve VI palsies (6.2%), and 2 internal carotid artery injuries (2.5%), which were treated with coil occlusion of the internal carotid artery without neurological deficits. Three patients (3.8%) presented with complications resulting in permanent neurological deficits due to a postoperative hematoma (1.2%) causing a hemiparesis, and 2 permanent ophthalmoplegias (2.5%). Seventeen patients (26.2%) have died of tumor progression over the course of follow-up (median 52 months, range 7–159 months). Based on Kaplan-Meier analysis, the survival rate was 77% at 5 years and 57% at 10 years. On multivariate analysis, the extent of tumor removal (p = 0.001) and the absence of previous treatments (p = 0.001) proved to be correlated with a longer survival rate.

CONCLUSIONS The EEA was associated with a high rate of tumor removal and symptom control, with low morbidity and preservation of a good quality of life. These results allow for a satisfactory overall survival rate, particularly after GTR and for primary surgery. Considering these results, the authors believe that an EEA can be a helpful tool in chordoma surgery, achieving a good balance between as much tumor removal as possible and the preservation of an acceptable patient quality of life.

Prospective comparison of long-term pain relief rates after first-time microvascular decompression and stereotactic radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia

J Neurosurg 128:68–77, 2018

Common surgical treatments for trigeminal neuralgia (TN) include microvascular decompression (MVD), stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), and radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Although the efficacy of each procedure has been described, few studies have directly compared these treatment modalities on pain control for TN. Using a large prospective longitudinal database, the authors aimed to 1) directly compare long-term pain control rates for first-time surgical treatments for idiopathic TN, and 2) identify predictors of pain control.

METHODS The authors reviewed a prospectively collected database for all patients who underwent treatment for TN between 1997 and 2014 at the University of California, San Francisco. Standardized collection of data on preoperative clinical characteristics, surgical procedure, and postoperative outcomes was performed. Data analyses were limited to those patients who received a first-time procedure for treatment of idiopathic TN with > 1 year of follow-up.

RESULTS Of 764 surgical procedures performed at the University of California, San Francisco, for TN (364 SRS, 316 MVD, and 84 RFA), 340 patients underwent first-time treatment for idiopathic TN (164 MVD, 168 SRS, and 8 RFA) and had > 1 year of follow-up. The analysis was restricted to patients who underwent MVD or SRS. Patients who received MVD were younger than those who underwent SRS (median age 63 vs 72 years, respectively; p < 0.001). The mean follow-up was 59 ± 35 months for MVD and 59 ± 45 months for SRS. Approximately 38% of patients who underwent MVD or SRS had > 5 years of follow-up (60 of 164 and 64 of 168 patients, respectively). Immediate or short-term (< 3 months) postoperative pain-free rates (Barrow Neurological Institute Pain Intensity score of I) were 96% for MVD and 75% for SRS. Percentages of patients with Barrow Neurological Institute Pain Intensity score of I at 1, 5, and 10 years after MVD were 83%, 61%, and 44%, and the corresponding percentages after SRS were 71%, 47%, and 27%, respectively. The median time to pain recurrence was 94 months (25th–75th quartiles: 57–131 months) for MVD and 53 months (25th–75th quartiles: 37–69 months) for SRS (p = 0.006). A subset of patients who had MVD also underwent partial sensory rhizotomy, usually in the setting of insignificant vascular compression. Compared with MVD alone, those who underwent MVD plus partial sensory rhizotomy had shorter pain-free intervals (median 45 months vs no median reached; p = 0.022). Multivariable regression demonstrated that shorter preoperative symptom duration (HR 1.005, 95% CI 1.001–1.008; p = 0.006) was associated with favorable outcome for MVD and that post-SRS sensory changes (HR 0.392, 95% CI 0.213–0.723; p = 0.003) were associated with favorable outcome for SRS.

CONCLUSIONS In this longitudinal study, patients who received MVD had longer pain-free intervals compared with those who underwent SRS. For patients who received SRS, postoperative sensory change was predictive of favorable outcome. However, surgical decision making depends upon many factors. This information can help physicians counsel patients with idiopathic TN on treatment selection.

Surgical outcomes of PLIF with CBT screw fixation

surgical-outcomes-of-plif-with-cbt-screw-fixation

J Neurosurg Spine 25:591–595, 2016

Several biomechanical studies have demonstrated the favorable mechanical properties of the cortical bone trajectory (CBT) screw. However, no reports have examined surgical outcomes of posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) with CBT screw fixation for degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) compared with those after PLIF using traditional pedicle screw (PS) fixation. The purposes of this study were thus to elucidate surgical outcomes after PLIF with CBT screw fixation for DS and to compare these results with those after PLIF using traditional PS fixation.

Methods Ninety-five consecutive patients underwent PLIF with CBT screw fixation for DS (CBT group; mean followup 35 months). A historical control group consisted of 82 consecutive patients who underwent PLIF with traditional PS fixation (PS group; mean follow-up 40 months). Clinical status was assessed using the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scale score. Fusion status was assessed by dynamic plain radiographs and CT. The need for additional surgery and surgery-related complications was also evaluated.

Results The mean JOA score improved significantly from 13.7 points before surgery to 23.3 points at the latest follow-up in the CBT group (mean recovery rate 64.4%), compared with 14.4 points preoperatively to 22.7 points at final follow-up in the PS group (mean recovery rate 55.8%; p < 0.05). Solid spinal fusion was achieved in 84 patients from the CBT group (88.4%) and in 79 patients from the PS group (96.3%, p > 0.05). Symptomatic adjacent-segment disease developed in 3 patients from the CBT group (3.2%) compared with 9 patients from the PS group (11.0%, p < 0.05).

Conclusions PLIF with CBT screw fixation for DS provided comparable improvement of clinical symptoms with PLIF using traditional PS fixation. However, the successful fusion rate tended to be lower in the CBT group than in the PS group, although the difference was not statistically significant between the 2 groups.

Preoperative predictive factors for surgical and functional outcomes in chronic subdural hematoma

Subdural Hematoma

Acta Neurochir (2016) 158:135–139

Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is a frequently encountered neurosurgical condition, especially in the elderly. We investigated predictive factors for surgical and functional outcomes after burr-hole drainage (BHD) surgery.

Methods All patients with CSDH treated by BHD between January 2012 and December 2014 were included in this study. All patients were classified by symptom, clinical grade, time, location, hematoma density, midline shift, and other characteristics. Pre- and postoperative CT evaluation was performed at 0, 3, and 6 months. Clinical grades were classified as described in Markwalder et al. Surgical and clinical outcomes were evaluated with the brain expansion rate and modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Brain expansion rate was calculated as the ratio between post- and pre-operative hematoma thickness. Recurrence was defined as the occurrence of symptoms and hematoma on CT within 6 months.

Results This study included 130 patients over 2 years. Among the variable parameters, young age (<75), iso-density of hematoma on CT, and short duration from symptom to surgery were correlated with good brain expansion. Patients with good brain expansion had fewer recurrences. In terms of mRS, young age, iso-density, and good clinical grade were correlated with good functional outcomes.

Conclusions Clinicians should be more aware of general conditions and medical problems, especially in elderly patients. Membranectomy should be considered in patients with a long duration of symptoms or hypo-dense hematomas to promote good brain expansion and good mRS scores.

A clinical prediction model to assess surgical outcome in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy

A clinical prediction model to assess surgical outcome in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy

The Spine Journal 15 (2015) 388–397

Clinical prediction rules are valuable tools in a surgical setting but should not be used to guide clinical practice until validated in other populations.

PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to validate a clinical prediction rule developed to determine surgical outcome in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). The study will also identify key clinical predictors of outcome at a global level.

STUDY DESIGN/SETTING: This is a prospective multicenter cohort study.

PATIENT SAMPLE: Two-hundred seventy-eight and 479 surgical CSM patients enrolled in the AOSpine CSM—North American (CSM-NA) and CSM—International (CSM-I) studies, respectively.

OUTCOME MEASURES: The outcome measure was a Modified Japanese Orthopedic Association (mJOA) Scale.

METHODS: A clinical prediction model was built using data from 272 patients enrolled in the CSM-NA study. Bootstrapping was used for internal validation. The original model was externally validated using data on 471 patients participating in the CSM-I study. The predictive performance of the model was evaluated, including its discrimination, measured by area under the receiver operating curve (AUC), and calibration, assessed by calibration slope, observed: expected ratios, and Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test.

RESULTS: The modified original model consisted of six covariates: age (odds ratio [OR], 0.96), duration of symptoms (0.76), baseline severity score (1.21), psychiatric comorbidities (0.44), impairment of gait (2.48), and smoking status (0.50). The AUC for the original model was 0.77 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.71, 0.82) and across the bootstrap replicates was 0.77 (95% CI: 0.76, 0.77), reflecting good discrimination and internal validity. The model tested on the CSM-I dataset yielded an AUC of 0.74 (95% CI: 0.69, 0.79), a calibration slope of 0.75, and an insignificant Hosmer-Lemeshow test. The ORs generated for baseline mJOA (OR, 1.26), impairment of gait (2.67), age (0.97), and smoking (0.55) were very similar to the original values of 1.28, 2.39, and 0.97, respectively. Duration of symptoms (OR, 0.94) had a significantly different odds ratio than in the original model, but the direction of its relationship with outcome was the same. Psychiatric comorbidities was not a significant predictor at an international level, likely because of underreporting: only six patients outside of North American centers were diagnosed with depression or bipolar.

CONCLUSIONS: The parameter estimates generated from the original analysis were internally valid. The original model was also externally valid. The most significant global predictors of surgical outcome were baseline myelopathy severity, age, smoking status and impaired gait.

Three-dimensional angioarchitecture of spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas, with special reference to the intradural retrograde venous drainage system

Three-dimensional angioarchitecture of spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas, with special reference to the intradural retrograde venous drainage system

J Neurosurg Spine 18:398–408, 2013

There have been significant advances in understanding the angioarchitecture of spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs). However, the major intradural retrograde venous drainage system has not been investigated in detail, including the most proximal sites of intradural radiculomedullary veins as they connect to the dura mater, which are the final targets of interruption in both microsurgical and endovascular treatments.

Methods. Between April 1984 and March 2011, 27 patients with 28 AVFs were treated for spinal dural AVFs at the authors’ university hospital. The authors assessed vertebral levels of feeding arteries and dural AVFs by using conventional digital subtraction angiography. They also assessed 3D locations of the most proximal sites of intradural radiculomedullary veins and the 3D positional relationship between the major intradural retrograde venous drainage system and intradural neural structures, including the spinal cord, spinal nerves, and the artery of Adamkiewicz, by using operative video recordings plus 3D rotational angiography and/or 3D computer graphics. In addition, they statistically assessed the clinical results of 27 cases. Of these lesions, 23 were treated with open microsurgery and the rest were treated with endovascular methods.

Results. Feeding arteries consisted of T2–10 intercostal arteries with 19 lesions, T-12 subcostal arteries with 3 lesions, and L1–3 lumbar arteries with 6 lesions. The 3D locations of the targets of interruption (the most proximal sites of intradural radiculomedullary veins as they connect to the dura mater) were identified at the dorsolateral portion of the dura mater adjacent to dorsal roots in all 19 thoracic lesions, whereas they were identified at the ventrolateral portion of the dura mater adjacent to ventral roots in 7 (78%) of 9 cases of conus medullaris/lumbar lesions (p < 0.001). The major intradural retrograde venous drainage system was located dorsal to the spinal cord in all 19 thoracic lesions, whereas it was located ventral to the spinal cord in 4 (44%) of 9 cases of conus/lumbar lesions (p = 0.006). In 3 (11%) of 27 cases, AVFs had a common origin of the artery of Adamkiewicz. In 2 lumbar lesions, the artery of Adamkiewicz ascended very close to the vein because of its ventral location. Although all lesions were successfully obliterated without major complications and both gait and micturition status significantly improved (p = 0.005 and p = 0.015, respectively), conus/lumbar lesions needed careful differential diagnosis from ventral intradural perimedullary AVFs, because the ventral location of these lesions contradicted the Spetzler classification system.

Conclusions. The angioarchitecture of spinal dural AVFs in the thoracic region is strikingly different from that in conus/lumbar regions with regard to the intradural retrograde venous drainage system. One should keep in mind that spinal dural AVFs are not always dorsal types, especially in conus/lumbar regions.

Long-Term Surgical Outcomes of Spinal Meningiomas

Spine 2012 ; 37 : E617 – E623 

Although previous studies have demonstrated favorable surgical outcomes for spinal meningioma, with a low incidence of tumor recurrence, few have examined longterm surgical outcomes.

Methods. The influence of patient age, surgical margin status (Simpson grade), tumor location, and histological subtype on tumor recurrence were examined retrospectively. In addition, the resected dura mater from Simpson grade I cases was examined for invasive tumor cells and compared with the presence or absence of a dural tail sign on magnetic resonance image.

Results. Complete resection (Simpson grades I and II) was performed in 62 patients. Among them, the tumor recurrence rate was 9.7%, all in patients who underwent grade II resection for ventral spinal lesions. The mean duration to reoperation in these patients was 12.2 ± 5.2 years. Of the 6 patients who underwent incomplete resection (Simpson grade III/IV), all required reoperation for tumor recurrence or regrowth, 5 years later on average. Patients younger than 50 years at the initial surgery had a significantly higher recurrence rate than those aged 50 years or older. Histologic examination of 43 dura mater specimens from Simpson grade I-resection patients revealed tumor cell invasion between the inner and outer layers in 15 patients. This invasion was noted in 8 (29%) of 28 patients who were negative for the dural tail sign on magnetic resonance image, and in 7 (47%) of 15 patients who showed a positive dural tail sign. The MIB-1 index reached about 10% for dumbbell-type meningiomas invading the vertebral body; these were associated with repeated recurrence and unfavorable prognosis.

Conclusion. Long-term follow-up after surgery for meningiomas indicated that Simpson grade I resection should be selected whenever practicable when treating younger patients or dumbbelltype meningiomas. Tumors recurred at 12 years, on average, in approximately 30% of patients who underwent grade II resection.

Can Elderly Patients Recover Adequately After Laminoplasty?

Spine 2012 ; 37 : 667 – 671 

This was a prospective clinical comparative study of surgical outcomes for patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM).

Objective. The purpose of this study was to compare the surgical outcomes between nonelderly and elderly patients with CSM who underwent laminoplasty.

Summary of Background Data. Age at the time of surgery influences the surgical outcome. We designed a large-scale study of the surgical outcome for CSM from a single operative procedure used exclusively in elderly patients.

Methods. A total of 520 consecutive patients with CSM (331 men; 189 women) who underwent double-door laminoplasty were included. Mean age was 62 years (range, 23–93), and mean duration of disease was 20.1 ± 32.0 months. Average postoperative followup period was 33.3 ± 15.7 months. Patients were divided into 3 groups by age: nonelderly ( < 65 years), young-old (65–74 years), and old-old ( ≥ 75 years). The number of patients in each group was 287, 143, and 90. Pre- and postoperative neurological status was evaluated using the Japanese Orthopaedic Association scoring system for cervical myelopathy (JOA score).

Results. Mean pre- and postoperative JOA scores in nonelderly, young-old, and old-old groups were 11.0 and 14.4, 10.2 and 13.2, and 8.7 and 11.8 points, respectively. The elderly group showed significantly low recovery rates of JOA scores compared with the nonelderly group ( P < 0.0001). However, mean achieved JOA scores (postoperative JOA score − preoperative JOA score) were 3.4, 3.0, and 3.1 in nonelderly, young-old, and old-old groups, respectively, with no significant difference among these groups ( P = 0.17).

Conclusion. Pre- and postoperative JOA scores were low in elderly patients. However, the achieved JOA score was almost similar among the 3 groups. Thus, elderly patients could obtain reasonable recovery after cervical laminoplasty.

A Proposed Grading System of Brain and Spinal Cavernomas

Neurosurgery 69:807–814, 2011 DOI: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e31821ffbb5
Most cavernomas in the central nervous system are characterized by a benign natural course. Progressive symptoms warrant surgical removal. In the literature, the factors affecting long-term postoperative outcome are not statistically well confirmed.
OBJECTIVE: To perform a multifactorial analysis of risk factors on a large patient series and to use the results to propose a simple grading scale to predict outcome.
METHODS: We studied 303 consecutive patients with cavernomas treated surgically at our department from 1980 to 2009. Follow-up assessment was performed on average 5.7 years postoperatively (range, 0.2-36 years). The main outcome measure was the patients’ condition at the last follow-up on Glasgow Outcome Scale. For statistical analysis, the outcome measure was dichotomized to favorable (Glasgow Outcome Scale 5) and unfavorable (Glasgow Outcome Scale 1-4). Binary logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the effect of age, sex, seizures, preexisting neurological deficits, hemorrhage, and size and location of cavernoma on long-term outcome.
RESULTS: Infratentorial, basal ganglia, or spinal location and preexisting neurological deficit were the only independent risk factors for unfavorable outcome, with relative risks of 2.7 (P = .008) and 3.2 (P = .002), respectively. We formulated a grading system based on a score of 1 to 3. When applied to our series, the proposed grading system strongly correlated with outcome (P < .001, Pearson x2 test). The risk for long-term unfavorable outcome was 13%, 22%, and 55% for grades 1 through 3, respectively.
CONCLUSION: The proposed grading system showed a convincing correlation with postoperative outcome in surgically treated cavernoma patients.

Stereotactic radiofrequency amygdalohippocampectomy in the treatment of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

Acta Neurochir (2010) 152:1291–1298. DOI 10.1007/s00701-010-0637-2

Minimally invasive percutaneous single trajectory stereotactic radiofrequency amygdalohippocampectomy was used to treat mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). The aim of the study was to evaluate complications and effectiveness of this procedure.

Materials and methods A group of 51 patients with MTLE was treated using stereotactic thermo-lesion of amygdalohippocampal complex under local anaesthesia. The target was reached through the occipital approach with a single trajectory using MRI stereotactic localisation. Thermocoagulation of the amygdalohippocampal complex was planned according to the individual anatomy of each patient. Amygdalohippocampectomy was performed using a string electrode with a 10-mm active tip, and 16–38 lesions (median=25) were performed in all patients along the 30- to 45-mm trajectory (median=35) in the amygdalohippocampal complex.

Results The procedure was well tolerated by all patients with no severe permanent morbidity; meningitis was recorded in two patients (4%), hematoma was detected in four patients, clinically insignificant in three of them, and one patient required temporary ventricular drainage (2%). Thirty-two patients were followed up over at least 2 years, and the clinical outcomes were evaluated by Engel’s classification; 25 of them (78%) were Engel I, five (16%) were Engel II, and two (6%) were Engel IV.

Conclusions Stereotactic amygdalohippocampectomy is a minimally invasive procedure with low morbidity and good results that can be the method of choice in selected patients with MTLE.

Meningiomas of the ventral foramen magnum and lower clivus: factors influencing surgical morbidity, the extent of tumour resection, and tumour recurrence

Acta Neurochir (2010) 152:79–86 DOI 10.1007/s00701-009-0511-2

Purpose To identify an appropriate surgical approach for meningiomas of the foramen magnum and lower clivus and determine the factors influencing the surgical outcomes. Method The study involved 23 patients with foramen magnum or lower clival meningiomas (8 men, 15 women; average age, 56 years; range, 26–70 years) treated at Keio University Hospital between 1991 and 2008. Their clinical data were retrospectively reviewed with regard to the surgical approaches and outcomes. The average follow-up duration was 42.8 months, the mean tumour size, 25.9 mm (range, 12.0–50.0 mm).

Findings The tumours most commonly originated in the anterolateral rim of the foramen magnum. In 12 cases with lateral compression of the brain stem, the tumours were resected via the suboccipital approach with C1 laminectomy. The transcondylar approach was adopted in 11 cases where the tumour was located on the anterior rim of the foramen magnum. Four patients required epidural drilling of the jugular tubercle. Gross total resection was achieved in 15 cases (62.5%), the resection rate being lowest in cases of tumour extension to the lower clivus. The transient and permanent morbidity rates were 30.4% and 17.4%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that extension to the lower clivus (noted in 6 of 23 patients) was a statistically significant, independent factor influencing the permanent morbidity rate (p = 0.005).

Conclusions Selecting an appropriate surgical approach considering the tumour location resulted in a good surgical outcome. However, tumour extension to the lower clivus strongly influenced the morbidity and tumour radicality.

Meningiomas of the ventral foramen magnum and lowerclivus

Acta Neurochir DOI 10.1007/s00701-009-0511-2

Purpose To identify an appropriate surgical approach for meningiomas of the foramen magnum and lower clivus and determine the factors influencing the surgical outcomes. Method The study involved 23 patients with foramen magnum or lower clival meningiomas (8 men, 15 women; average age, 56 years; range, 26–70 years) treated at Keio University Hospital between 1991 and 2008. Their clinical data were retrospectively reviewed with regard to the surgical approaches and outcomes. The average follow-up duration was 42.8 months, the mean tumour size, 25.9 mm (range, 12.0–50.0 mm).

Findings The tumours most commonly originated in the anterolateral rim of the foramen magnum. In 12 cases with lateral compression of the brain stem, the tumours were resected via the suboccipital approach with C1 laminectomy. The transcondylar approach was adopted in 11 cases where the tumour was located on the anterior rim of the foramen magnum. Four patients required epidural drilling of the jugular tubercle. Gross total resection was achieved in 15 cases (62.5%), the resection rate being lowest in cases of tumour extension to the lower clivus. The transient and permanent morbidity rates were 30.4% and 17.4%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that extension to the lower clivus (noted in 6 of 23 patients) was a statistically significant, independent factor influencing the permanent morbidity rate (p = 0.005)

Conclusions Selecting an appropriate surgical approach considering the tumour location resulted in a good surgical outcome. However, tumour extension to the lower clivus strongly influenced the morbidity and tumour radicality