Surgical versus Nonsurgical Treatment for Adult Spinal Deformity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

World Neurosurg. (2022) 159:1-11

OBJECTIVE: To systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of surgical and nonsurgical methods for the treatment of adult spinal deformity (ASD).

METHODS: The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for relevant controlled studies of surgical and nonsurgical approaches for the treatment of ASD; all studies reported from database creation to October 2021 were eligible for inclusion. Stata 11.0 software was used for the metaanalysis. Publication bias was assessed using a Begg test. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I2 test, and fixed-effects or random-effects models were used, as appropriate. Meta-regression was used to determine the cause of heterogeneity. Subgroup analyses were performed to assess the effects of age on the outcomes. –

RESULTS: Eleven articles comprising 1880 participants met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis showed that surgical treatment was associated with a better improvement in function than was nonsurgical treatment (Scoliosis Research Society 22 questionnaire score change value: weighted mean difference [ 0.696; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.686e0.705; P < 0.0001; Oswestry Dysfunction Index change value: WMD [ 11.222; 95% CI, 10.801e11.642; P < 0.0001). Surgical treatment was more effective in relieving pain and correcting the deformity (numeric rating scale pain score: WMD[3.341; 95% CI, 2.832e3.85; P < 0.0001; Cobb angle change value: WMD [ 15.036 ; 95% CI, 13.325e16.747; P < 0.0001). The complication rate in the surgical group was 17.6%e80.3%.

CONCLUSIONS: Surgical treatment is better than nonsurgical methods for improving the function of patients with ASD and achieving good pain improvement and deformity correction. Elderly patients with ASD can also obtain good symptomatic improvement through surgery

Comprehensive analysis of perforator territory infarction on postoperative diffusion-weighted imaging in patients with surgically treated unruptured intracranial saccular aneurysms

J Neurosurg 132:1088–1095, 2020

Perforator territory infarction (PTI) is still a major problem needing to be solved to achieve good outcomes in aneurysm surgery. However, details and risk factors of PTI diagnosed on postoperative MRI remain unknown. The authors aimed to investigate the details of PTI on postoperative diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in patients with surgically treated unruptured intracranial saccular aneurysms (UISAs).

METHODS The data of 848 patients with 1047 UISAs were retrospectively evaluated. PTI was diagnosed on DWI, which was performed the day after aneurysm surgery. Clinical and radiological characteristics were compared between UISAs with and without PTI. Poor outcome was defined as an increase in 1 or more modified Rankin Scale scores at 12 months after aneurysm surgery.

RESULTS Postoperative DWI was performed in all cases, and it revealed PTI in 56 UISA cases (5.3%). Forty-three PTIs occurred without direct injury and occlusion of perforators (43 of 56, 77%). Poor outcome was more frequently observed in the PTI group (17 of 56, 30%) than the non-PTI group (57 of 1047, 5.4%) (p < 0.0001). Thalamotuberal arteries (p < 0.01), lateral striate arteries (p < 0.01), Heubner’s artery (p < 0.01), anterior median commissural artery (p < 0.05), terminal internal carotid artery perforators (p < 0 0.01), and basilar artery perforator (p < 0 0.01) infarctions were related to poor outcome by adjusted residual analysis. On multivariate analysis, statin use (OR 10, 95% CI, 3.3–31; p < 0.0001), specific aneurysm locations (posterior communicating artery [OR 4.1, 95% CI 2.1–8.1; p < 0.0001] and basilar artery [OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.1–8.9; p = 0.031]), larger aneurysm size (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.1–1.2; p = 0.043), and permanent decrease of motor evoked potential (OR 38, 95% CI 3.1–468; p = 0.0045) were related to PTI.

CONCLUSIONS Despite efforts to avoid PTI, it occurred even without direct injury, occlusion of perforators, or evoked potential abnormality. Therefore, surgical treatment of UISAs, especially with the aforementioned risk factors of PTI, should be more carefully considered. The evaluation of PTI in the territory of the above-mentioned perforators could be useful in helping predict the clinical course in patients after aneurysm surgery.

Surgical management of spinal osteoblastomas

J Neurosurg Spine 27:321–327, 2017

Osteoblastoma is a rare primary benign bone tumor with a predilection for the spinal column. Although of benign origin, osteoblastomas tend to behave more aggressively clinically than other benign tumors. Because of the low incidence of osteoblastomas, evidence-based treatment guidelines and high-quality research are lacking, which has resulted in inconsistent treatment. The goal of this study was to determine whether application of the Enneking classification in the management of spinal osteoblastomas influences local recurrence and survival time.

METHODS A multicenter database of patients who underwent surgical intervention for spinal osteoblastoma was developed by the AOSpine Knowledge Forum Tumor. Patient data pertaining to demographics, diagnosis, treatment, crosssectional survival, and local recurrence were collected. Patients in 2 cohorts, based on the Enneking classification of the tumor (Enneking appropriate [EA] and Enneking inappropriate [EI]), were analyzed. If the final pathology margin matched the Enneking-recommended surgical margin, the tumor was classified as EA; if not, it was classified as EI.

RESULTS A total of 102 patients diagnosed with a spinal osteoblastoma were identified between November 1991 and June 2012. Twenty-nine patients were omitted from the analysis because of short follow-up time, incomplete survival data, or invalid staging, which left 73 patients for the final analysis. Thirteen (18%) patients suffered a local recurrence, and 6 (8%) patients died during the study period. Local recurrence was strongly associated with mortality (relative risk 9.2; p = 0.008). When adjusted for Enneking appropriateness, this result was not altered significantly. No significant differences were found between the EA and EI groups in regard to local recurrence and mortality.

CONCLUSIONS In this evaluation of the largest multicenter cohort of spinal osteoblastomas, local recurrence was found to be strongly associated with mortality. Application of the Enneking classification as a treatment guide for preventing local recurrence was not validated.

Surgical Decompression of Arachnoid Cysts Leads to Improved Quality of Life

Suprasellar Arachnoid Cysts- Toward a New Simple Classification Based on Prognosis and Treatment Modality

Neurosurgery 78:613–625, 2016

There is no previous prospective study on the outcome of surgical decompression of intracranial arachnoid cysts (AC).

OBJECTIVE: To investigate if surgical fenestration for AC leads to change in patients’ health-related quality of life.

METHODS: Prospective study including 76 adult patients operated for AC. Patients responded to Short Form-36 and Glasgow Benefit Inventory quality of life questionnaires, and to visual analogue scales, assessing headache and dizziness pre- and postoperatively. Patient scores were compared with those of a large sample of healthy individuals.

RESULTS: Preoperatively, 84.2% of the patients experienced headache and 70.1% dizziness. Mean pre- versus postoperative Visual Analogue Scale scores for headache and dizziness dropped from 45.6 to 25.7 and from 35.2 to 12.2, respectively. Preoperative Short Form-36 scores were significantly below age norms in all subscales, but improved after surgery into normal range in 7 out of 8 subscales for middle-aged and older patients. Younger patients’ scores remained lower than age norm in 6 out of 8 subscales. A significant postoperative improvement was seen in 3 out of 4 Glasgow Benefit Inventory subscales. Improvement in headache and/or dizziness, but not preoperative cyst size or reduction in cyst volume, correlated with improvement in 6 out of 8 Short Form-36 subscales and 3 out of 4 Glasgow Benefit Inventory subscales. Only 1 patient experienced a severe complication causing permanent invalidity.

CONCLUSION: Surgery for AC can be performed with a fairly low risk of complications and yields significant improvement in quality of life correlated to postoperative improvement in headache and dizziness. These findings may justify a more liberal approach to surgical treatment for AC.

Seizure Outcomes in Patients With Surgically Treated Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations

ICG and AVM

Neurosurgery 77:762–768, 2015

Epilepsy is the second most common symptom in cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) patients. The consecutive reduction of life quality is a clinically underrated problem because treatment usually focuses on the prevention of intracerebral hemorrhage.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate postoperative seizure outcome with the aim of more accurate counseling for postoperative seizure outcome.

METHODS: From 1985 to 2012, 293 patients with an AVM were surgically treated by J.S. One hundred twenty-six patients with preoperative seizures or epilepsy could be identified; 103 of 126 had a follow-up of at least 12 months and were included in the analysis. The different epilepsy subtypes were categorized (sporadic seizures, chronic epilepsy, drug-resistant epilepsy [DRE]). Preoperative workup and surgical technique were evaluated. Seizure outcome was analyzed by using International League Against Epilepsy classification.

RESULTS: Sporadic seizures were identified in 41% of patients (chronic epilepsy and DRE were identified in 36% and 23%, respectively). Detailed preoperative epileptological workup was done in 13%. Seizure freedom was achieved in 77% (79% at 5 years, 84% at 10 years). Outcome was significantly poorer in DRE cases. More extensive resection was performed in 11 cases with longstanding symptoms (.24 months) and resulted in better seizure outcome as well as the short duration of preoperative seizure history.

CONCLUSION: Patients presenting with AVM-associated epilepsy have a favorable seizure outcome after surgical treatment. Long-standing epilepsy and the progress into DRE markedly deteriorate the chances to obtain seizure freedom and should be considered an early factor in establishing the indication for AVM removal.

Microsurgical resection of an intramedullary glomus arteriovenous malformation in the high cervical spinal cord

Microsurgical resection of an intramedullary glomus arteriovenous malformation in the high cervical spinal cord

Acta Neurochir (2015) 157:1659–1664

Spinal intramedullary arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) fed by an anterior spinal artery are surgically challenging vascular lesions.

Method We herein presented microsurgical resection techniques for an intramedullary glomus AVM located in the lateral part of the high cervical spinal cord with an operative video.

These techniques included (1) a lateral suboccipital approach via cervical hemilaminectomy in the lateral position; (2) retrograde dissection of the AVM located between the spinal tracts; (3) coagulation and division of multiple narrow sulcal branches of the anterior spinal artery.

Conclusion Patients who underwent these techniques achieved good outcomes with minimal bleeding and morbidity.

Craniocervical Instability in the Setting of Os Odontoideum

Craniocervical Instability in the Setting of Os Odontoideum

Neurosurgery 76:514–521, 2015

Our clinical understanding of os odontoideum (OO) remains incomplete. Congenital and traumatic causes have been proposed and advocated. Clinical presentations range from asymptomatic to axial pain to myelopathy or vertebral-basilar ischemia. A consensus for surgical management exists for those found to have an unstable atlantoaxial complex or symptomatic cranial-vertebral junction compression.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical presentation and surgical outcomes of patients with OO and an unstable atlantoaxial complex or symptomatic cranial-vertebral junction compression.

METHODS: Patients with a diagnosis of OO who underwent surgical management were included. Patients were excluded on the basis of previous C2 fracture, Fielding diagnostic criteria, and inadequate follow-up. History of trauma and presenting symptoms were assessed. Clinical and neurological improvements were measured with the use of patient satisfaction scores and the Japanese Orthopaedic Association scores. Fusion status was documented with the use of radiographs and computed tomographic imaging.

RESULTS: Of 279 patients, 112 reported a history of cranial-vertebral junction trauma, whereas 28 were diagnosed with congenital malformations. Clinically, 84.9% of patients presented with myelopathy, with pain presented in 42.6%. Atlantoaxial fixation was performed in 240 patients, occiput-to-C2 fixation in 35 patients, and extended occipitocervical fixation in 4 patients. Mean follow-up was 40.3 months. Complications were reported in 2.4% of patients. Japanese Orthopaedic Association scores improved from a preoperative mean of 12.4 to 14.8. Two hundred thirty-five patients (77.7%) improved, with 30 patients experiencing no change in symptoms and 14 patients deteriorating. Fusion was achieved in 96.8% of patients.

CONCLUSION: Our data reveal that surgical treatment for OO using the indications and techniques delineated is associated with high satisfaction rates, improved functional scores, and high fusion rates with low complication rates.

Re-exploration of the craniotomy after surgical treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms

Cranio re-exploration for aneu

Acta Neurochir (2014) 156:869–877

Unplanned re-exploration of the craniotomy after surgical treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) is sometimes required, but the underlying causes and rates of these procedures are seldom reported. This study retrospectively analyzed the causes of such re-explorations to identify methods for decreasing their necessity.

Method From January 2000 to December 2011, 1,720 patients with a total of 1,938 UIAs underwent surgical treatment at our institution. Fromthis cohort, 26 patients (1.5 %) with 38 UIAs required re-exploration. Clinical data, aneurysm characteristics, treatment methods, and the incidence and causes of re-exploration of the craniotomy were analyzed for these 26 patients.

Results: Several causes of re-exploration were identified: compromised distal blood flow (eight patients, 0.47 %), hemorrhagic venous infarction (four patients, 0.23 %), brain retraction injury (three patients, 0.17 %), newly identified aneurysms (three patients, 0.17 %), bleeding from an incompletely clipped aneurysm (two patients, 0.12 %), epidural hematoma (two patients, 0.12%), failed aneurysm clipping (two patients, 0.12 %) and other causes (two patients, 0.12 %). Annual reexploration incidence rates ranged from 0 to 3.1 %. Annual incidence rates gradually decreased following the introduction of several intraoperative monitoring systems.

Conclusions Precise surgical planning and careful operative techniques can reduce the incidence of unplanned reexploration of the craniotomy. The introduction of various intraoperative monitoring systems can also contribute to a reduction in this incidence.

Combined endovascular and surgical treatment of fusiform aneurysms of the basilar artery

Combined endovascular and surgical treatment of fusiform aneurysms of the basilar artery- technical note

Acta Neurochir (2014) 156:53–61

To present the combined treatment of fusiform basilar artery aneurysms consisting of a surgical posterior fossa decompressive craniectomy and ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt operation at the same sitting, before the endovascular procedure with telescopic stenting of the aneurysmatic vessel segment in four cases.

Methods Combined treatment involving surgical procedure consisting of ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement for hydrocephalus and an occipital bone craniectomy and C1 vertebrae posterior laminectomy to decompress the posterior fossa in the same session. After surgery, the patients were loaded with acetylsalicylic acid and clopidogrel, and then the endovascular treatment was performed.

Results All of the procedures were performed successfully without technical difficulty. The patients tolerated the procedures well and all cases showed remodelling with the overlapping stent technique. The patients were discharged home with baseline neurological situation and computed tomography (CT) angiography was performed at the 3rd month.

Conclusion This technique is a safer endovascular approach to treating symptomatic fusiform basilar artery aneurysms by protecting patients from both the haemorrhagic complications of anticoagulant therapy and thrombotic complications due to the interruption of anticoagulant therapy, while treating the hydrocephalus and compression by surgical means.

Surgical treatment of cervical kyphosis

Eur Spine J. DOI 10.1007/s00586-010-1602-8.

Cervical kyphosis is an uncommon but potentially debilitating and challenging condition. We reviewed the etiology, presentation, clinical and radiological evaluation, and treatment of cervical kyphosis. Based on the current controversy as to the ideal mode of surgical management, we paid particular attention to the available surgical strategies. There are three approaches for cervical kyphosis: the anterior, posterior or combined procedures. The principal indication for the posterior strategy is a flexible kyphosis or kyphosis caused by ankylosing spondylitis. The main point of debate is between the choice of the anterior or the combined strategy. The two strategies were compared with regard to clinical outcome, correction of deformity, rate of fusion, complications, revision surgery, and mortality. The combined strategy appears to result in a greater degree of correction than the anterior-alone strategy, and it is more likely to improve the cervical alignment to achieve a lordosis. However, the procedure carries a higher rate of postoperative neurological deterioration, complications, revision surgery, and mortality. Although the anterioralone strategy achieves a smaller reduction of cervical kyphosis, it has a lower rate of postoperative neurological deterioration, complications, revision surgery, and mortality. We recommend that the surgical treatment of cervical kyphosis should be planned on an individual basis. A multicenter, prospective, randomized controlled study would be necessary to determine the ideal mode of treatment for complex cervical kyphosis

Surgical treatment of cervical kyphosis

Eur Spine J. DOI 10.1007/s00586-010-1602-8

Cervical kyphosis is an uncommon but potentially debilitating and challenging condition.

We reviewed the etiology, presentation, clinical and radiological evaluation, and treatment of cervical kyphosis. Based on the current controversy as to the ideal mode of surgical management, we paid particular attention to the available surgical strategies.

There are three approaches for cervical kyphosis: the anterior, posterior or combined procedures. The principal indication for the posterior strategy is a flexible kyphosis or kyphosis caused by ankylosing spondylitis.

The main point of debate is between the choice of the anterior or the combined strategy. The two strategies were compared with regard to clinical outcome, correction of deformity, rate of fusion, complications, revision surgery, and mortality. The combined strategy appears to result in a greater degree of correction than the anterior-alone strategy, and it is more likely to improve the cervical alignment to achieve a lordosis. However, the procedure carries a higher rate of postoperative neurological deterioration, complications, revision surgery, and mortality. Although the anterior alone strategy achieves a smaller reduction of cervical kyphosis, it has a lower rate of postoperative neurological deterioration, complications, revision surgery, and mortality.

We recommend that the surgical treatment of cervical kyphosis should be planned on an individual basis.

A multicenter, prospective, randomized controlled study would be necessary to determine the ideal mode of treatment for complex cervical kyphosis.

A Retrospective Analysis of Patient Perceived Outcomes in Patients 55 Years and Older Undergoing Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion

J Spinal Disord Tech 2010;23:157–161

Study Design/Setting: Retrospective review of clinical outcomes after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) surgery with allograft and plating in patients over 55 years of age.

Objective: To evaluate the results of ACDF surgery in patients aged 55 years and older.

Summary of Background Data: ACDF surgery has been a standard treatment for cervical degenerative and herniated disc disease for many years. Previous assessments of efficacy have used patient perceived outcome measures including the Neck Disability Index (NDI) and the Short Form 36 Question Health Questionnaire (SF-36). Patient perceived outcome after ACDF surgery in an age specific cohort (55 y and older) has not been documented previously.

Methods: Fifty-two consecutive patients over 55 years of age who underwent 1 to 3 level ACDF with allograft and plating were identified. Patient perceived outcome questionnaires (NDI and SF-36) were available for 44 patients. There were 28 females and 16 males. Mean age at time of surgery was 61.8 years. Average length of follow-up was 25.2 months (12 to 54 mo).

Results: All but one patient demonstrated radiographic healing of the fusion site at the time of their last follow-up. The mean improvement of these 10 groups (total NDI score) was statistically significant (difference = 9.47, t=5.6390, P=1.5198E-06). There was a statistically significant decrease in disability in 7 of the 8 SF-36 categories as well. The mean of the 8 SF-36 categories (total SF-36) improved significantly (improvement=11.92, t= 3.6857, P=0.0007).

Conclusions: On the basis of our statistically significant improvement in NDI and SF-36 scores, as a measure of patient perceived outcome after ACDF surgery, outcomes after ACDF surgery in patients over 55 years of age are not significantly different than those of a younger patient population

Trends, Major Medical Complications, and Charges Associated With Surgery for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis in Older Adults

JAMA. 2010;303(13):1259-1265

In recent decades, the fastest growth in lumbar surgery occurred in older patients with spinal stenosis. Trials indicate that for selected patients, decompressive surgery offers an advantage over nonoperative treatment, but surgeons often recommend more invasive fusion procedures. Comorbidity is common in older patients, so benefits and risks must be carefully weighed in the choice of surgical procedure.

Objective: To examine trends in use of different types of stenosis operations and the association of complications and resource use with surgical complexity.

Design, Setting, and Patients: Retrospective cohort analysis of Medicare claims for 2002-2007, focusing on 2007 to assess complications and resource use in US hospitals. Operations for Medicare recipients undergoing surgery for lumbar stenosis (n=32 152 in the first 11 months of 2007) were grouped into 3 gradations of invasiveness: decompression alone, simple fusion (1 or 2 disk levels, single surgical approach), or complex fusion (more than 2 disk levels or combined anterior and posterior approach).

Main Outcome Measures: Rates of the 3 types of surgery, major complications, postoperative mortality, and resource use.

Results: Overall, surgical rates declined slightly from 2002-2007, but the rate of complex fusion procedures increased 15-fold, from 1.3 to 19.9 per 100.000 beneficiaries. Lifethreatening complications increased with increasing surgical invasiveness, from 2.3% among patients having decompression alone to 5.6% among those having complex fusions. After adjustment for age, comorbidity, previous spine surgery, and other features, the odds ratio (OR) of life-threatening complications for complex fusion compared with decompression alone was 2.95 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.50-3.49). A similar pattern was observed for rehospitalization within 30 days, which occurred for 7.8% of patients undergoing decompression and 13.0% having a complex fusion (adjusted OR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.74-2.17). Adjusted mean hospital charges for complex fusion procedures were US $80.888 compared with US $23.724 for decompression alone.

Conclusions: Among Medicare recipients, between 2002 and 2007, the frequency of complex fusion procedures for spinal stenosis increased while the frequency of decompression surgery and simple fusions decreased. In 2007, compared with decompression, simple fusion and complex fusion were associated with increased risk of major complications, 30-day mortality, and resource use.

Microsurgical Excision of Colloid Cyst With Favorable Cognitive Outcomes and Short Operative Time and Hospital Stay: Operative Techniques and Analyses of Outcomes With Review of Previous Studies

Neurosurgery: February 2010 – Volume 66 – Issue 2 – p 368–375. doi: 10.1227/01.NEU.0000363858.17782.82

Microsurgical and endoscopic colloid cyst excision differ with regard to operative time, length of hospital stay, and extent of resection.

METHODS: A retrospective review of a single surgeon’s microsurgical colloid cyst resection in 10 consecutive patients was performed. Cyst size, hydrocephalus, symptoms, operative time, postoperative stay, complications, and objective testing of memory, concentration, calculation, and attention (cognition), along with performance at job, were noted.

RESULTS: All 10 patients had complete excision. Mean cyst size, mean operative time, and median postoperative stay were 1.6 cm, 124 minutes, and 3.5 days respectively. The mean operative time from cyst visualization to complete excision was 18 minutes. Follow-up ranged from 6 to 111 months (mean, 49.5 months). There were no recurrences; symptoms (headache, visual and balance problems) improved significantly in 70%. Postoperative cognitive performance, including memory, was the same in 8 patients (5 of whom had preoperative memory problems) and worse in 2 patients who had no preoperative memory problems. The bone flap was removed in 1 patient for wound dehiscence. Hemiparesis in another patient, seen immediately after surgery, completely resolved before discharge. One patient with loculated ventricles and multiple previous shunt revisions had unresolved hydrocephalus after cyst excision.

CONCLUSION: We report the very short operative times and postoperative stay for microsurgery, which are comparable to some endoscopic series. We also report results of objective tests of cognitive performance. With adoption of a callosal incision of 1 cm or less, meticulous dissection around the fornix, and complete excision, acceptable long-term cognitive function and functional performance were achieved. Our results support the microsurgical approach. A larger sample size can more conclusively establish whether it should be chosen over the endoscopic technique.

Craniotomy for resection of meningioma in the elderly: a multicenter, prospective analysis from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program

J Neurol Psychiatry. DOI:10.1136/jnnp.2009.185074

Whether there is an increased surgical risk in elderly patients who undergo craniotomy for meningioma resection, remains a point of controversy. Utilizing multicenter, prospective data from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program, the present study sought to address this controversy.

All patients who underwent a craniotomy for resection of intracranial meningioma between 1997 and 2006 at 123 VA hospitals around the country were included. After controlling for preoperative factors such as ASA class, race, diabetes mellitus, disseminated cancer, tobacco use, tumor location, and functional health status in a multivariate logistic regression model, the effect of elderly age (age greater than 70 years) on 30-day mortality was determined.

Our study included 1,281 patients who underwent surgical resection of an intracranial meningioma. The elderly cohort, represented 21.2% (n=258) of our total study population. Elderly patients had a higher 30-day mortality (12.0%) than younger subjects (4.6%) (P < 0.0001). Similarly, elderly patients were more likely to have one or more complications (29.8% vs. 13.1%, P < 0.0001). Multivariate logistic regression identified age, functional status, preoperative disseminated cancer, and tumor location as important predictors of 30-day mortality. After controlling for preoperative comorbidities and risk factors, the odds of perioperative mortality in elderly patients were 3 times that of younger patients (95% CI = 1.7 – 5.3, P = 0.0102).

After carefully controlling for various patient characteristics, ASA class and functional status, elderly patients have poorer outcome after surgical resection of intracranial meningioma than younger subjects.

Trigeminal neurinomas: clinical features and surgical experience in 84 patients

Neurosurg Rev (2009) 32:435–444.DOI:10.1007/s10143-009-0210-8

Trigeminal neurinomas are the second most common intracranial neurinomas next to the vestibular neurinomas. Eighty-four patients with trigeminal neurinomas were treated between 2003 and 2007. There were 40 women and 44 men (mean age 43 years). The most frequent symptoms were headache or numbness of the ipsilateral hemiface. There were 24 type A, nine type B, 45 type C, and six type D tumors. Dextroscope virtual reality technology was used for preoperative planning in recent eight cases. Gross total resection was achieved in 63 patients. We found that the major impediments to complete removal were adherent to the brainstem and skull base vascular structure, the frontotemporal approach with zygomatic or orbitozygomatic osteotomy or subtemporal approach could offer excellent exposure of the middle fossa and access to the posterior fossa, and Dextroscope virtual reality technology was a very useful tool to identify surgical and anatomic nuances and enhance preoperative planning in trigeminal neurinomas resection.

Infratentorial ependymomas: prognostic factors and outcome analysis in a multi-center retrospective series of 106 adult patients

Acta Neurochirurgica (151)8: 947 960. 01/08/2009

This study was undertaken to analyze outcomes and to assess the prognostic impact of age, location, surgery, radiotherapy (RT), and histopathology in a series of adult infratentorial ependymomas. This was a retrospective study of a population of 106 adult patients with infratentorial ependymomas diagnosed between 1990 and 2004. A central pathological review of all cases was performed. Grading was according to the WHO and Marseille’s neograding classifications. The series consisted of 58 males (54.7%) and 48 females (45.3%) in the age range of 18-82 years. Using the WHO classification, 88 patients (83.0%) had grade II and 18 patients (17.0%) grade III ependymomas. Using the Marseille’s neograding system, 91 patients were low-grade and 15 high-grade. Gross total resection was achieved in 66 patients (62.3%). Thirty-seven patients (35.0%) received adjuvant RT. The 5- and 10-year overall survival rates for the entire cohort were 86.1% and 80.5%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, a preoperative Karnofski performance status score > 80, no recessus lateral extension and a low histological grade (Marseille’s grading) were associated with a longer overall survival. The 5- and 10-year progression-free survival rates for the entire cohort were 70.8% and 57.7%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, no recessus lateral extension, gross total resection and a low histological grade (Marseille’s grading) were associated with a longer progression-free survival. Adjuvant RT was significantly associated with a better overall and progression-free survival in incompletely resected WHO grade II ependymomas. This study highlights the key role of histology in the clinical outcome and the fact that gross total resection is a main prognostic factor and the treatment of choice for posterior fossa ependymomas. The use of adjuvant RT in patients with incompletely resected WHO grade II ependymomas appears beneficial, but its effect on high-grade tumors remains to be determined.