After 9 Years of 3-Column Osteotomies, Are We Doing Better? Performance Curve Analysis of 573 Surgeries With 2-Year Follow-up

Neurosurgery 83:69–75, 2018

In spinal deformity treatment, the increased utilization of 3-column (3CO) osteotomies reflects greater comfort and better training among surgeons. This study aims to evaluate the longitudinal performance and adverse events (complications or revisions) for a multicenter group following a decade of 3CO.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate if performance of 3CO surgeries improves with years of practice. METHODS:Patientswhounderwent 3COfor spinal deformity with intra/postoperative and revision data collected up to 2 yrwere included. Patientswere chronologically divided into 4 even groups. Demographics, baseline deformity/correction, and surgical metrics were compared using Student t-test. Postoperative and revision rates were compared using Chi-square analysis.

RESULTS: Five hundred seventy-three patients were stratified into: G1 (n=143, 2004-2008), G2 (n = 142, 2008-2009), G3 (n = 144, 2009-2010), G4 (n = 144 2010-2013). The most recent patients were more disabled by Oswestry disability index (G4=49.2 vs G1=38.3, P=.001), and received a larger osteotomy resection (G4 = 26◦ vs G1 = 20◦, P = .011) than the earliest group. There was a decrease in revision rate (45%, 35%, 33%, 30%, P = .039), notably in revisions for pseudarthrosis (16.7% G1 vs 6.9% G4, P = .007). Major complication rates also decreased (57%, 50%, 46%, 39%, P = .023) as did excessive blood loss (>4 L, 27.2 vs 16.7%, P =.023) and bladder/bowel deficit (4.2% vs 0.7% P=.002). Successful outcomes (no complications or revision) significantly increased (P = .001).

CONCLUSION:Over 9 yr, 3COs are being performed on an increasingly disabled population while gaining a greater correction at the osteotomy site. Revisions and complication rate decreased while success rate improved during the 2-yr follow-up period.