Indocyanine Green Videoangiography in Aneurysm Surgery: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Neurosurgery, 83 (2): 166–180

Although digital subtraction angiography (DSA) may be considered the gold standard for intraoperative vascular imaging, many neurosurgical centers rely only on indocyanine green videoangiography (ICG-VA) for the evaluation of clipping accuracy. Many studies have compared the results of ICG-VA with those of intraoperative DSA; however, a systematic review summarizing these results is still lacking.
To analyze the literature in order to evaluate ICG-VA accuracy in the identification of aneurysm remnants and vessel stenosis after aneurysm clipping.
We performed a systematic literature review of ICG-VA accuracy during aneurysm clipping as compared to microscopic visual observation (primary endpoint 1) and DSA (primary endpoint 2). Quality of studies was assessed with the QUADAS-2 tool. Meta-analysis was performed using a random effects model.
The initial PubMed search resulted in 2871 records from January 2003 to April 2016; of these, 20 articles were eligible for primary endpoint 1 and 11 for primary endpoint 2. The rate of mis-clippings that eluded microscopic visual observation and were identified at ICG-VA was 6.1% (95% CI: 4.2-8.2), and the rate of mis-clippings that eluded ICG-VA and were identified at DSA was 4.5% (95% CI: 1.8-8.3).

Because a proportion of mis-clippings cannot be identified with ICG-VA, this technique should still be considered complementary rather than a replacement to DSA during aneurysm surgery. Incorporating other intraoperative tools, such as flowmetry or electrophysiological monitoring, can obviate the need for intraoperative DSA for the identification of vessel stenosis. Nevertheless, DSA likely remains the best tool for the detection of aneurysm remnants.