The Application of the Novel Grading Scale (Lawton-Young Grading System) to Predict the Outcome of Brain Arteriovenous Malformation

Neurosurgery 84:529–536, 2019

A supplementary grading scale (Supplemented Spetzler-Martin grade, Supp-SM) was introduced in 2010 as a refinement of the SM system to improve preoperative risk prediction of brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs).

OBJECTIVE: To determine the ability to predict surgical outcomes using the Supp-SM grading scale.

METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted on 200 patients admitted to the Helsinki University Hospital between 2000 and 2014. The validity of the Supp-SM and SM grading systems was compared using the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curves, with respect to the change between preoperative and early (3-4 mo) as well as final postoperative modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores.

RESULTS: The performance of the Supp-SM was superior to that of the SM grading scale in the early follow-up (3-4 mo): AUROC = 0.57 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.49-0.65) for SM and AUROC = 0.67 (95% CI: 0.60-0.75) for Supp-SM. The Supp-SM performance continued improving over SM at the late follow-up: AUROC=0.63 (95% CI: 0.55-0.71) for SM and AUROC = 0.70 (95% CI: 0.62-0.77) for Supp-SM. The perforating artery supply, which is not part of either grading system, plays an important role in the early follow-up outcome (P = .008; odds ratio: 2.95; 95% CI: 1.32-6.55) and in the late follow-up outcome (P < .001; odds ratio: 5.89; 95% CI: 2.49-13.91).

CONCLUSION: The Supp-SM grading system improves the outcome prediction accuracy and is a feasible alternative to the SMS, even for series with higher proportion of high-grade AVMs. However, perforators play important role on the outcome.