J Neurosurg 130:1166–1179, 2019
Wireless technology is a novel tool for the transmission of cortical signals. Wireless electrocorticography (ECoG) aims to improve the safety and diagnostic gain of procedures requiring invasive localization of seizure foci and also to provide long-term recording of brain activity for brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). However, no wireless devices aimed at these clinical applications are currently available. The authors present the application of a fully implantable and externally rechargeable neural prosthesis providing wireless ECoG recording and direct cortical stimulation (DCS). Prolonged wireless ECoG monitoring was tested in nonhuman primates by using a custom-made device (the ECoG im- plantable wireless 16-electrode [ECOGIW-16E] device) containing a 16-contact subdural grid. This is a preliminary step toward large-scale, long-term wireless ECoG recording in humans.
METHODS The authors implanted the ECOGIW-16E device over the left sensorimotor cortex of a nonhuman primate (Macaca fascicularis), recording ECoG signals over a time span of 6 months. Daily electrode impedances were mea- sured, aiming to maintain the impedance values below a threshold of 100 KW. Brain mapping was obtained through wireless cortical stimulation at fixed intervals (1, 3, and 6 months). After 6 months, the device was removed. The authors analyzed cortical tissues by using conventional histological and immunohistological investigation to assess whether there was evidence of damage after the long-term implantation of the grid.
RESULTS The implant was well tolerated; no neurological or behavioral consequences were reported in the monkey, which resumed his normal activities within a few hours of the procedure. The signal quality of wireless ECoG remained excellent over the 6-month observation period. Impedance values remained well below the threshold value; the average impedance per contact remains approximately 40 KW. Wireless cortical stimulation induced movements of the upper and lower limbs, and elicited fine movements of the digits as well. After the monkey was euthanized, the grid was found to be encapsulated by a newly formed dural sheet. The grid removal was performed easily, and no direct adhesions of the grid to the cortex were found. Conventional histological studies showed no cortical damage in the brain region covered by
the grid, except for a single microscopic spot of cortical necrosis (not visible to the naked eye) in a region that had under- gone repeated procedures of electrical stimulation. Immunohistological studies of the cortex underlying the grid showed
a mild inflammatory process.
CONCLUSIONS This preliminary experience in a nonhuman primate shows that a wireless neuroprosthesis, with related long-term ECoG recording (up to 6 months) and multiple DCSs, was tolerated without sequelae. The authors predict that epilepsy surgery could realize great benefit from this novel prosthesis, providing an extended time span for ECoG recording.