In select patient populations, hyperglycemia has been shown to increase the risk of surgical site infection (SSI), whereas stringent glucose control has improved outcomes. To date, no study has focused on whether SSIs in patients with brain tumors undergoing resection are associated with hyperglycemia. Methods. The authors performed a retrospective chart review of patients who underwent a craniotomy after receiving a diagnosis of brain tumor. From 2001 to 2008, 2485 patients underwent a craniotomy for tumor resection at the Brain Tumor & Neuro-Oncology Center at the Cleveland Clinic. Fifty-seven of these patients (2.3%) developed SSIs postoperatively. A matched case-control study design was used, with 57 patients who developed SSIs after craniotomy (cases) matched with 57 patients who did not develop SSIs (controls). The results were analyzed using both univariate and multivariate conditional logistic regression. Results. Glucose level was not a significant factor in postoperative SSI (p = 0.83) after adjusting for duration of surgery and adherence to antibiotic prophylaxis. However, duration of surgery was significantly associated with postoperative SSI (p = 0.047). Conclusions. For patients who undergo craniotomy for definitive resection of a brain tumor, duration of surgery described more variation in the model to predict SSI than blood glucose levels.