Acta Neurochirurgica (2021) 163:1969–1977
Although recent studies show vitamin D deficiency is associated with cognitive decline, urinary incontinence, and gait instability, there has been no study on the effect of vitamin D on idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) characterized by the classic symptom triad of cognitive decline, urinary incontinence, and gait instability. We investigated the clinical significance of vitamin D in patients with iNPH.
Methods Between 2017 and 2020, 44 patients who underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery were divided into low (< 15 ng/mL) and high (≥ 15 ng/mL) vitamin D groups according to the concentration of 25(OH)D, an effective indicator of vitamin D status. They were respectively evaluated according to clinical and radiological findings.
Results The low vitamin D group (n = 24) showed lower preoperative cognition compared to the high vitamin D group (n = 20) in terms of Korean-Mini Mental Status Examination (K-MMSE) and iNPH grading scale (iNPHGS) (K-MMSE: 20.5 5.4 versus 24.0 4.5, p = 0.041; iNPHGS cognitive score: 2 0.9 versus 1 0.6, p = 0.025). And the low vitamin D group showed pre- and postoperatively more severe urinary incontinence (preoperative iNPHGS urinary score: 1 1.0 versus 0 0.9, p = 0.012; postoperative iNPHGS urinary score:1 1.0 versus 0 0.9, p = 0.014). The score of narrow high-convexity sulci for the low vitamin D group was lower (low vitamin D group: 1 0.7 versus high vitamin D group: 2 0.4, p = 0.031).
Conclusion Lower concentration of vitamin D in iNPH may be related to lower preoperative cognition, pre- and postoperative urinary incontinence, and brain morphological change.