Intracranial Meningiomas Decrease in Volume on Magnetic Resonance Imaging After Discontinuing Progestin

Neurosurgery 89:308–314, 2021

The behavior of meningiomas under influence of progestin therapy remains unclear.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between growth kinetics of intracranial meningiomas and usage of the progestin cyproterone acetate (PCA).

METHODS: This study prospectively followed 108 women with 262 intracranial meningiomas and documented PCA use. A per-meningioma analysis was conducted. Changes in meningioma volumes over time, and meningioma growth velocities, were measured on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after stopping PCA treatment.

RESULTS: Mean follow-up time was 30 (standard deviation [SD] 29) mo. Ten (4%) meningiomas were treated surgically at presentation. The other 252 meningiomas were followed after stopping PCA treatment. Overall, followedmeningiomas decreased their volumes by 33% on average (SD 28%). A total of 188 (72%) meningiomas decreased, 51 (19%) meningiomas remained stable, and 13 (5%) increased in volume of which 3 (1%) were surgically treated because of radiological progression during follow-up after PCA withdrawal. In total, 239 of 262 (91%) meningiomas regressed or stabilized during follow-up. Subgroup analysis in 7 women with 19 meningiomas with follow-up before and after PCA withdrawal demonstrated that meningioma growth velocity changed statistically significantly (P = .02). Meningiomas grew (average velocity of 0.25mm3/day) while patients were using PCA and shrank (average velocity of −0.54 mm3/day) after discontinuation of PCA.

CONCLUSION: Ninety-one percent of intracranial meningiomas in female patients with long-term PCA use decrease or stabilize on MRI after stopping PCA treatment. Meningioma growth kinetics change significantly from growth during PCA usage to shrinkage after PCA withdrawal.