Cerebrospinal fluid and venous biomarkers of shunt‐responsive idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus: a systematic review and meta‐analysis

Acta Neurochirurgica (2022) 164:1719–1746

Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a neurodegenerative disease and dementia subtype involving disturbed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) homeostasis. Patients with iNPH may improve clinically following CSF diversion through shunt surgery, but it remains a challenge to predict which patients respond to shunting. It has been proposed that CSF and blood biomarkers may be used to predict shunt response in iNPH.

Objective To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify which CSF and venous biomarkers predict shunt- responsive iNPH most accurately.

Methods Original studies that investigate the use of CSF and venous biomarkers to predict shunt response were searched using the following databases: Embase, MEDLINE, Scopus, PubMed, Google Scholar, and JSTOR. Included studies were assessed using the ROBINS-I tool, and eligible studies were evaluated utilising univariate meta-analyses.

Results The study included 13 studies; seven addressed lumbar CSF levels of amyloid-β 1–42, nine studies CSF levels of Total-Tau, six studies CSF levels of Phosphorylated-Tau, and seven studies miscellaneous biomarkers, proteomics, and genotyping. A meta-analysis of six eligible studies conducted for amyloid-β 1–42, Total-Tau, and Phosphorylated-Tau demonstrated significantly increased lumbar CSF Phosphorylated-Tau (− 0.55 SMD, p = 0.04) and Total-Tau (− 0.50 SMD, p = 0.02) in shunt-non-responsive iNPH, though no differences were seen between shunt responders and non-responders for amyloid-β 1–42 (− 0.26 SMD, p = 0.55) or the other included biomarkers.

Conclusion This meta-analysis found that lumbar CSF levels of Phosphorylated-Tau and Total-Tau are significantly increased in shunt non-responsive iNPH compared to shunt-responsive iNPH. The other biomarkers, including amyloid-β 1–42, did not significantly differentiate shunt-responsive from shunt-non-responsive iNPH. More studies on the Tau proteins examining sensitivity and specificity at different cut-off levels are needed for a robust analysis of the diagnostic efficiency of the Tau proteins.