Neuropathological and Neuroradiological Spectrum of Pediatric Malignant Gliomas: Correlation With Outcome

Neurosurgery 69:215–224, 2011 DOI: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e3182134340

The diagnostic accuracy and reproducibility for glioma histological diagnosis are suboptimal.

OBJECTIVE: To characterize radiological and histological features in pediatric malignant gliomas and to determine whether they had an impact on survival.

METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed a series of 96 pediatric malignant gliomas. All histological samples were blindly and independently reviewed and classified according to World Health Organization 2007 and Sainte-Anne classifications. Radiological features were reviewed independently. Statistical analyses were performed to investigate the relationship between clinical, radiological, and histological features and survival.

RESULTS: Cohort median age was 7.8 years; median follow-up was 4.8 years. Tumors involved cerebral hemispheres or basal ganglia in 82% of cases and brainstem in the remaining 18%. After histopathological review, low-grade gliomas and nonglial tumors were excluded (n = 27). The World Health Organization classification was not able to demonstrate differences between groups and patients survival. The Sainte-Anne classification identified a 3-year survival rate difference between the histological subgroups (oligodendroglioma A, oligodendroglioma B, malignant glioneuronal tumors, and glioblastomas; P = .02). The malignant glioneuronal tumor was the only glioma subtype with specific radiological features. Tumor location was significantly associated with 3-year survival rate (P = .005). Meningeal attachment was the only radiological criteria associated with longer survival (P = .02).

CONCLUSION: The Sainte-Anne classification was better able to distinguish pediatric malignant gliomas in terms of survival compared with the World Health Organization classification. In this series, neither of these 2 histological classifications provided a prognostic stratification of the patients.