Results of the Prospective, Randomized, Multicenter Clinical Trial Evaluating a Biosynthesized Cellulose Graft for Repair of Dural Defects

Neurosurgery 69:1093–1104, 2011 DOI: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e3182284aca 

After intradural cranial surgery, a dural substitute is often required for dural closure. Although preferred, limitations of autograft include local availability and additional surgical site morbidity. Thus, allografts, xenografts, and synthetics are frequently used.

OBJECTIVE: To report 6-month results of a randomized, controlled trial of a biosynthesized cellulose (BSC) composed duraplasty device compared with commercially available dural replacements.

METHODS: A total of 99 patients (62 BSC; 37 control) were treated on protocol, using a 2:1 (BSC:control) blocked randomization schedule. Physical examinations were performed pre- and postoperatively within 10 days and at 1, 3, and 6 months. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed preoperatively and at 6 months. The primary study endpoint was the absence of pseudomeningocele and extracerebral fluid collection confirmed radiographically and the absence of cerebrospinal fluid fistula at 6 months.

RESULTS: At 6 months, the primary hypothesis, noninferiority of the BSC implant compared with the control group, was confirmed (P = .0206). Overall success was achieved by 96.6% of BSC and 97.1% of control patients. No significant difference was revealed between treatment groups for surgical site infection (P = 1.0000) or wound healing assessment (P $ .3685) outcomes, or radiologic endpoints (P $ .4061). Device strength and seal quality favored BSC.

CONCLUSION: This randomized, controlled trial establishes BSC as noninferior to commercially available dural replacement devices. BSC offers a hypothetical advantage concerning prion and other infectious agent exposure; superior handling qualities are evident. Longer term data are necessary to identify limitations of BSC and its potential equivalence to the gold standard of pericranium.