Cancer Cell 17, 98–110, January 19, 2010
The Cancer Genome Atlas Network recently cataloged recurrent genomic abnormalities in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). We describe a robust gene expression-based molecular classification of GBM into Proneural, Neural, Classical, and Mesenchymal subtypes and integrate multidimensional genomic data to establish patterns of somatic mutations and DNA copy number. Aberrations and gene expression of EGFR, NF1, and PDGFRA/IDH1 each define the Classical, Mesenchymal, and Proneural subtypes, respectively. Gene signatures of normal brain cell types show a strong relationship between subtypes and different neural lineages. Additionally, response to aggressive therapy differs by subtype, with the greatest benefit in the Classical subtype and no benefit in the Proneural subtype. We provide a framework that unifies transcriptomic and genomic dimensions for GBM molecular stratification with important implications for future studies.
This work expands on previous glioblastoma classification studies by associating known subtypes with specific alterations in NF1 and PDGFRA/IDH1 and by identifying two additional subtypes, one of which is characterized by EGFR abnormalities and wild-type p53. In addition, the subtypes have specific differentiation characteristics that, combined with data from recent mouse studies, suggest a link to alternative cells of origin. Together, these data provide a framework for investigation of targeted therapies. Temozolomide and radiation, a common treatment for glioblastoma, has demonstrated a significant increase in survival. Our analysis illustrates that a survival advantage in heavily treated patients varies by subtype, with Classical or Mesenchymal subtypes having significantly delayed mortality that was not observed in the Proneural subtype