Combined “Hybrid” Open and Minimally Invasive Surgical Correction of Adult Thoracolumbar Scoliosis: A Retrospective Cohort Study

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Neurosurgery 72:151–159, 2013

Surgery for scoliosis requires extensive exposure, resulting in significant tissue injury and longer recovery times. To minimize morbidity in scoliosis surgery, several studies have shown successful application of a combination of minimally invasive techniques; however, the extent of scoliosis treated has been modest.

OBJECTIVE: To achieve some of the benefits of minimally invasive surgery and yet treat curves of greater degree, we have used a combined approach, incorporating both open and minimally invasive techniques.

METHODS: We analyzed a prospectively acquired database in addition to reviewing electronic records of patients undergoing hybrid surgery for thoracolumbar scoliosis. Nine patients were identified. The minimally invasive portion involved the lumbar region in all cases. Pain was assessed by the visual analog scale and disability was measured by the Oswestry Disability Index.

RESULTS: Mean preoperative scoliosis was 47.8 degrees, which was corrected to a mean 15.2 degrees. An average of 7.8 spinal levels was treated. Estimated blood loss averaged 1094.4 mL, and length of hospital stay averaged 7.2 days. Acute complications occurred in 2 patients. Longer term complications occurred in 2 patients, consisting of adjacent segment disease. The mean improvement in the visual analog scale score was 3.7 and the mean improvement on the Oswestry Disability Index was 30.5. Average follow-up was 29.2 months.

CONCLUSION: The hybrid approach for the treatment of scoliosis results in acceptable radiographic and clinical outcomes. Complications did not appear increased compared with those expected with scoliosis surgery. Although decreased adjacent tissue injury was achieved with the minimally invasive component of the procedure, a larger comparative study is required to determine magnitude of this benefit.