Safety and technical efficacy of early minimally invasive endoscopy‑guided surgery for intracerebral haemorrhage: the Dutch Intracerebral haemorrhage Surgery Trial pilot study

Acta Neurochirurgica (2023) 165:1585–1596

Previous randomised controlled trials could not demonstrate that surgical evacuation of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) improves functional outcome. Increasing evidence suggests that minimally invasive surgery may be beneficial, in particular when performed early after symptom onset. The aim of this study was to investigate safety and technical efficacy of early minimally invasive endoscopy-guided surgery in patients with spontaneous supratentorial ICH.

Methods The Dutch Intracerebral Haemorrhage Surgery Trial pilot study was a prospective intervention study with blinded outcome assessment in three neurosurgical centres in the Netherlands. We included adult patients with spontaneous supratentorial ICH ≥10mL and National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score ≥2 for minimally invasive endoscopy-guided surgery within 8 h after symptom onset in addition to medical management. Primary safety outcome was death or increase in NIHSS ≥4 points at 24 h. Secondary safety outcomes were procedure-related serious adverse events (SAEs) within 7 days and death within 30 days. Primary technical efficacy outcome was ICH volume reduction (%) at 24 h.

Results We included 40 patients (median age 61 years; IQR 51–67; 28 men). Median baseline NIHSS was 19.5 (IQR 13.3–22.0) and median ICH volume 47.7mL (IQR 29.4–72.0). Six patients had a primary safety outcome, of whom two already deteriorated before surgery and one died within 24 h. Sixteen other SAEs were reported within 7 days in 11 patients (of whom two patients that already had a primary safety outcome), none device related. In total, four (10%) patients died within 30 days. Median ICH volume reduction at 24 h was 78% (IQR 50–89) and median postoperative ICH volume 10.5mL (IQR 5.1–23.8).

Conclusions Minimally invasive endoscopy-guided surgery within 8 h after symptom onset for supratentorial ICH appears to be safe and can effectively reduce ICH volume. Randomised controlled trials are needed to determine whether this intervention also improves functional outcome.

Trial registration Clinicaltrials. gov: NCT03608423, August 1st, 2018.

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