The benefits of automated CSF drainage in normal pressure hydrocephalus

Acta Neurochirurgica (2023) 165:1505–1509

The commonly used cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage system remains the manual drip-chamber drain. The LiquoGuard (Möller Medical GmbH, Germany) is an automated CSF management device with dual functionality, measuring intracranial pressure and automatic pressure- or volume-led CSF drainage. There is limited research for comparison of devices, particularly in the neurosurgical field, where it has potential to reshape care.

Objective This study aims to compare manual drip-chamber drain versus LiquoGuard system, by assessing accuracy of drainage, associated morbidity and impact on length of stay.

Method Inclusion criteria consisted of suspected normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) patients undergoing extended lumbar drainage. Patients were divided into manual drain group versus automated group.

Results Data was analysed from 42 patients: 31 in the manual group versus 11 in the LiquoGuard group. Volumetric overdrainage was seen in 90.3% (n = 28) versus 0% (p < 0.05), and under-drainage in 38.7% (n = 12) versus 0% (p < 0.05), in the manual and automatic group, respectively. Symptoms of over-drainage were noted in 54.8% (n = 17) of the manual group, all of which had episodes of volumetric over-drainage, versus 18.2% (n = 2) in automated group, of which neither had actual over-drainage (p < 0.05). Higher over-drainage symptoms of manual drain is likely due to increased fluctuation of CSF drainage, instead of smooth CSF drainage seen with LiquoGuard system. An increased length of stay was seen in 38.7% (n = 12) versus 9% (n = 1) (p < 0.05) in the manual and LiquoGuard group, respectively.

Conclusion The LiquoGuard device is a more superior way of CSF drainage in suspected NPH patients, with reduced morbidity and length of stay.

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