Endoscope- versus microscope-integrated near-infrared indocyanine green videoangiography in aneurysm surgery

J Neurosurg 131:1413–1422, 2019

The quality of surgical treatment of intracranial aneurysms is determined by complete aneurysm occlusion while preserving blood flow in the parent, branching, and perforating arteries. For a few years, there has been a nearly noninvasive and cost-effective technique for intraoperative flow evaluation: microscope-integrated indocyanine green videoangiography (mICG-VA). This method allows for real-time information about blood flow in the aneurysm and the involved vessels, but its limitations are seen in the evaluation of structures located in the depth of the surgical field, especially through small craniotomies. To compensate for these drawbacks, an endoscope-integrated ICG-VA (eICG-VA) was developed. The objective of the present study was to assess the use of eICG-VA in comparison with mICG-VA for intraoperative blood flow evaluation.

METHODS In the period between January 2011 and January 2015, 216 patients with a total of 248 intracranial saccular aneurysms were surgically treated in the Department of Neurosurgery of Saarland University Medical Center in Homburg/Saar, Germany. During 95 surgeries in 88 patients with a total of 108 aneurysms, intraoperative evaluation was performed with both eICG-VA and mICG-VA. After clipping, evaluation of complete aneurysm occlusion and flow in the parent, branching, and perforating arteries was performed using both methods. Intraoperative applicability of each technique was compared with the other and with postoperative digital subtraction angiography as a standard evaluation technique.

RESULTS Evaluation of completeness of aneurysm occlusion and of flow in the parent, branching, and perforating arteries was more successful with eICG-VA than with mICG-VA, especially for aneurysm neck assessment (88.9% vs 69.4%). For 63.9% of the aneurysms (n = 69), both methods were equivalent, but in 30.6% of the cases (n = 33), the eICG-VA provided better results for evaluating the post-clipping situation. In 4.6% of these aneurysms (n = 5), the information given by the additional endoscope considerably changed the surgical procedure. Thus, one residual aneurysm (0.9%), two neck remnants (1.9%), and two branch occlusions (1.9%) could be prevented. Nevertheless, two incomplete aneurysm occlusions (1.9%) and six neck remnants (5.6%) were revealed by postoperative digital subtraction angiography.

CONCLUSIONS Endoscope-integrated ICG-VA seems to be an improvement that might increase the quality of aneurysm surgery by providing additional information. It offers higher illumination, magnification, and an extended viewing angle. Its main advantage is its ability to assess deep-seated aneurysms, especially through small craniotomies, but further studies are required.

Endoscopy in Aneurysm Surgery

Neurosurgery 70[ONS Suppl 2]:ons184–ons191, 2012. DOI: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e3182376a36

Surgical clipping with complete occlusion of the aneurysm and preservation of parent, branching, and perforating vessels remains the most definitive treatment for intracranial aneurysms.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the benefit of endoscopic application during microsurgical procedures in a retrospective study.

METHODS: One hundred eighty aneurysms were microsurgically treated in 124 operations. Three different applications of endoscopic visualization were used, depending on the respective requirements: inspection before clipping, clipping under endoscopic view, and postclipping evaluation.

RESULTS: Of 1380 aneurysms, 292 procedures were done with application of the endoscope. Of these 292, a complete data set, including video recording of the procedures for retrospective evaluation, was available in 180 cases. In these, the endoscope provided a favorable enhancement of the visual field, particularly in complex or deepseated lesions. No adverse effects were observed. Before clipping, the endoscope was used to gain additional topographic information in 150 of 180 cases (83%). Clipping under endoscopic view was performed in 4 cases. After clipping, endoscopic inspection was performed in 130 of 180 procedures. Depending on the endoscopic findings, rearrangement of the applied clip or additional clipping was found to be necessary in 26 of 130 cases (20.0%).

CONCLUSION: Endoscopic enhancement of the visual field provided by the endoscope before, during, and after microsurgical aneurysm occlusion may be a safe and effective application to increase the quality of treatment. Although unexpected findings concerning completeness of aneurysm occlusion and compromise of involved vessels could be diminished by endoscopic assessment, total prevention was not accomplished.

Visualization of the Anterior Cerebral Artery Complex With a Continuously Variable-View Rigid Endoscope: New Options in Aneurysm Surgery

Neurosurgery 67[ONS Suppl 2]:ons321–ons324, 2010 DOI: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e3181f74548.

Neuroendoscopy is increasingly used as an adjunctive tool in intracranial aneurysm surgery.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the versatility of a prototype continuously variable-view rigid endoscope in visualizing the anterior cerebral artery complex.

METHODS: In 5 formaldehyde-fixed, arterially injected specimens, a standard frontolateral approach was used on both sides. After meticulous microsurgical dissection using this approach, the prototype of a multivariable rigid endoscope (EndoCAMeleon; Karl Storz GmbH & Co, Tuttlingen, Germany) was inserted. It is a rigid endoscope that is capable of changing its angle of view while remaining stationary and shape invariant. We inspected the anterior cerebral artery complex, using and testing the capabilities of the device.

RESULTS: The continuously variable viewing mechanism enables the surgeon to adjust the field of view continuously and to optimize the visualization of the neurovascular structures. Because of the rigid tip combined with the continuously variable viewing mechanism, the need to move the endoscope within the surgical field was minimal. The field of view changes, but the tip itself hardly moves. The EndoCAMeleon was able to enhance both the visibility of the anterior cerebral artery complex and the accessibility of the A1 and A2 arterial walls to a range of approximately 270 degrees.

CONCLUSION: The EndoCAMeleon enhances the visibility of the anterior cerebral artery complex and facilitates endoscope-assisted inspection, planning of clip application, and clip control.