Middle Meningeal Artery Embolization Versus Conventional Management for Patients With Chronic Subdural Hematoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Neurosurgery 92:1142–1154, 2023

The results from studies that compare middle meningeal artery (MMA) embolization vs conventional management for patients with chronic subdural hematoma are varied.

OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on studies that compared MMA embolization vs conventional management.

METHODS: Medline, PubMed, and Embase databases were searched. Primary outcomes were treatment failure and surgical rescue; secondary outcomes were complications, follow-up modified Rankin scale > 2, mortality, complete hematoma resolution, and length of hospital stay (day). The certainty of the evidence was determined using the GRADE approach.

RESULTS: Nine studies yielding 1523 patients were enrolled, of which 337 (22.2%) and 1186 (77.8%) patients received MMA embolization and conventionalmanagement, respectively.MMA embolization was superior to conventional management for treatment failure (relative risk [RR] = 0.34 [0.14-0.82], P = .02), surgical rescue (RR = 0.33 [0.14-0.77], P = .01), and complete hematoma resolution (RR = 2.01 [1.10-3.68], P = .02). There was no difference between the 2 groups for complications (RR= 0.93 [0.63-1.37], P = .72), follow-up modified Rankin scale >2 (RR= 0.78 [0.449-1.25], P= .31), mortality (RR= 1.05 [0.51-2.14], P = .89), and length of hospital stay (mean difference = 0.57 [ 2.55, 1.41], P = .57). ForMMAembolization, the number needed to treat for treatment failure, surgical rescue, and complete hematoma resolution was 7, 9, and 3, respectively. The certainty of the evidence was moderate to high for primary outcomes and low to moderate for secondary outcomes.

CONCLUSION: MMA embolization decreases treatment failure and the need for surgical rescue without furthering the risk of morbidity and mortality. The authors recommend considering MMA embolization in the chronic subdural hematoma management.

Embolization of the middle meningeal artery in patients with chronic subdural hematoma—a systematic review and meta-analysis

Acta Neurochirurgica (2020) 162:777–784

Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) remains a neurosurgical condition with high recurrence rate after surgical treatment. The primary pathological mechanism is considered to be repeated microbleedings from fragile neo-vessels within the outer hematoma membrane. The neo-vessels are supplied from peripheral branches of the middle meningeal artery, and embolization of MMA (eMMA) has been performed to prevent re-bleeding episodes and thereby CSDH recurrence.

Objective To evaluate the published evidence for the effect of eMMA in patients with recurrent CSDH. Secondarily, to investigate the effect of eMMA as an alternative to surgery for primary treatment of CSDH. Method A systematic review of the literature on eMMA in patients with recurrent CSDH was conducted. PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases were reviewed using the search terms: Embolization, Medial Meningeal Artery, Chronic Subdural Haematoma, and Recurrence. Furthermore, the following mesh terms were used: Chronic Subdural Haematoma AND embolization AND medial meningeal artery AND recurrence. Eighteen papers were found and included. No papers were excluded. The number of patients with primary CSDH and the number of patients with recurrent CSDH treated with eMMA were listed. Furthermore, the number of recurrences in both categories was registered.

Results Eighteen papers with a total of 191 included patients diagnosed with CSDH treated with eMMA for primary and recurrent CSDH were identified. Recurrence rate for patients treated with eMMA for recurrent CSDH was found to be 2.4%, 95%CI (0.5%; 11.0%), whereas the recurrence rate for patients treated with eMMAfor primary CSDH was 4.1%, 95%CI (1.4%; 11.4%).

Conclusion eMMA is a minimally invasive procedure for treatment of CSDH. Although this study is limited by publication bias, it seems that this procedure may reduce recurrence rates compared with burr hole craniostomy for both primary and recurrent hematomas. A controlled study is warranted.

Subperiosteal versus subdural drainage after burr hole evacuation of chronic subdural hematoma: systematic review and meta-analysis

Acta Neurochirurgica (2020) 162:489–498

The evidence for subperiosteal drainage (SPD) versus subdural drainage (SDD) in chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) remains controversial, and most surgeons prefer to use SDD over SPD.We aimto assess the latest evidence on the use of SPD compared to SDD in patients with CSDH undergoing burr hole evacuation.

Methods We performed a systematic literature search on topics that assesses the use of SPD compared to SDD in patients with CSDH up until November 2019 from PubMed, EuropePMC, Cochrane Central Database, ScienceDirect, ProQuest, and ClinicalTrials.gov. The primary outcome was recurrent CSDH, and the secondary outcomes were mortality, surgical morbidities, and modified Rankin Score (mRS).

Results There were a total of 3241 subjects from 10 studies. SPD was shown to reduce recurrent CSDH (OR 0.66 [0.52, 0.84], p < 0.001; I2: 17%, p = 0.30) compared to SDD. Recurrent CSDH was lower in SPD group in subgroup analysis at 3-months (OR 0.63 [0.49, 0.81]; I2: 68%, p = 0.04) and 6-months (OR 0.66 [0.51, 0.85], p = 0.001; I2: 77%, p = 0.01) follow-up. However, there was no difference in CSDH recurrence upon subgroup analysis of RCTs. Similar mortality was demonstrated between SPD and SDD group (p = 0.13). The occurrence of parenchymal injury/new neurological deficit was significantly lower in SPD group (OR 0.26 [0.14, 0.51], p < 0.001; I2: 49%, p = 0.08). The rate of seizure, (p = 0.57), postoperative bleeding (p = 0.29), and infection (p = 0.25) were shown to be similar in both SPD and SDD group. Overall, the rate of surgical morbidity was significantly lower in SPD group (OR 0.61 [0.44, 0.85], p = 0.003; I2: 16%, p = 0.25). mRS at the end of follow-up was similar in SPD and SDD group (p = 0.12).

Conclusion SPD was associated with less CSDH recurrence, but similar rate of mortality, seizures, postoperative bleeding, and infections compared to SDD. The rate of parenchymal injury/new neurological deficit was lower in the SPD group.

Opening the Internal Hematoma Membrane Does Not Alter the Recurrence Rate of Chronic Subdural Hematomas: A Prospective Randomized Trial

Is systematic post-operative CT scan indicated after chronic subdural hematoma surgery?


Factors determining the recurrence of chronic subdural hematomas (CSDHs) are not clear. Whether opening the so-called internal hematoma membrane is useful has not been investigated.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether splitting the inner hematoma membrane influences the recurrence rate in patients undergoing burr-hole craniotomy for CSDH.

METHODS: Fifty-two awake patients undergoing surgery for 57 CSDHs were prospectively randomized to either partial opening of the inner hematoma membrane (group A) or not (group B) after enlarged burr-hole craniotomy and hematoma evacuation. Drainage was left in situ for several days postoperatively. Groups were comparable with regard to demographic, clinical, and imaging variables. Outcome was assessed after 3e6 weeks for the combined outcome variable of reoperation or residual hematoma of one third or more of the original hematoma thickness.

RESULTS: Fourteen patients underwent reoperation for clinical deterioration or residual hematoma during follow- up (n = 6 in group A, 21%; n = 8 in group B, 28 %) (P = 0.537). Residual hematoma of ≥ one third not requiring surgery was present in 7 patients in group A (25%) and 10 patients in group B (36%) (P = 0.383). The overall cumulative failure rate (reoperation or hematoma thickness ≥ one third) was 13/28 (46%) in group A and 18/28 in group B (P = 0.178; relative risk, 0.722 [95% confidence interval, 0.445-1.172]; absolute risk reduction -16% =95% confidence interval, -38% to 8%]).

CONCLUSIONS: Opening the internal hematoma membrane does not alter the rate of patients requiring revision surgery and the number of patients showing a marked residual hematoma 6 weeks after evacuation of a CSDH.


The surgical management of chronic subdural hematoma

Neurosurg Rev DOI 10.1007/s10143-011-0349-y

Chronic subdural hematoma (cSDH) is an increasingly common neurological disease process. Despite the wide prevalence of cSDH, there remains a lack of consensus regarding numerous aspects of its clinical management. We provide an overview of the epidemiology and pathophysiology of cSDH and discuss several controversial management issues, including the timing of postoperative resumption of anticoagulant medications, the effectiveness of anti-epileptic prophylaxis, protocols for mobilization following evacuation of cSDH, as well as the comparative effectiveness of the various techniques of surgical evacuation.

A PubMed search was carried out through October 19, 2010 using the following keywords: “subdural hematoma”, “craniotomy”, “burr-hole”, “management”, “anticoagulation”, “seizure prophylaxis”, “antiplatelet”, “mobilization”, and “surgical evacuation”, alone and in combination. Relevant articles were identified and back-referenced to yield additional papers. A meta-analysis was then performed comparing the efficacy and complications associated with the various methods of cSDH evacuation.

There is general agreement that significant coagulopathy should be reversed expeditiously in patients presenting with cSDH. Although protocols for gradual resumption of anti-coagulation for prophylaxis of venous thrombosis may be derived from guidelines for other neurosurgical procedures, further prospective study is necessary to determine the optimal time to restart fulldose anti-coagulation in the setting of recently drained cSDH. There is also conflicting evidence to support seizure prophylaxis in patients with cSDH, although the existing literature supports prophylaxis in patients who are at a higher risk for seizures.

The published data regarding surgical technique for cSDH supports primary twist drill craniostomy (TDC) drainage at the bedside for patients who are high-risk surgical candidates with non-septated cSDH and craniotomy as a first-line evacuation technique for cSDH with significant membranes. Larger prospective studies addressing these aspects of cSDH management are necessary to establish definitive recommendations.