Comparison of 5-aminolevulinic acid and sodium fluorescein for intraoperative tumor visualization in patients with high-grade gliomas

J Neurosurg 133:1324–1331, 2020

Maximal safe resection is an important surgical goal in the treatment for high-grade gliomas. Fluorescent dyes help the surgeon to distinguish malignant tissue from healthy. The aims of this study were 1) to compare the 2 fluorescent dyes 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) and sodium fluorescein (fluorescein) regarding extent of resection, progression- free survival, and overall survival; and 2) to assess the influence of other risk factors on clinical outcome and screen for potential disadvantages of the dyes.

METHODS A total of 209 patients with high-grade gliomas were included in this retrospective study. Resections were performed in the period from 2012 to 2017 using 5-ALA or fluorescein. Extent of resection was assessed as the difference in tumor volume between early postoperative and preoperative MRI studies. Tumor progression–free survival and overall survival were analyzed using an adjusted Cox proportional hazards model.

RESULTS One hundred fifty-eight patients were operated on with 5-ALA and 51 with fluorescein. The median duration of follow-up was 46.7 and 21.2 months, respectively. Covariables were evenly distributed. There was no statistically significant difference in volumetrically assessed median extent of resection (96.9% for 5-ALA vs 97.4% for fluorescein, p = 0.46) or the percentage of patients with residual tumor volume less than 0.175 cm3 (29.5% for 5-ALA vs 36.2% for fluorescein, p = 0.39). The median overall survival was 14.8 months for the 5-ALA group and 19.7 months for the fluorescein group (p = 0.06). The median adjusted progression-free survival was 8.7 months for the 5-ALA group and 9.2 months for the fluorescein group (p = 0.03).

CONCLUSIONS Fluorescein can be used as a viable alternative to 5-ALA for intraoperative fluorescent guidance in brain tumor surgery. Comparative, prospective, and randomized studies are much needed.

 

Subdural Hematoma in Patients With Cancer

Neurosurgery 71:74–79, 2012 DOI: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e3182517938

Subdural hematoma (SDH) in patients with cancer is poorly described, and its frequency and causes may have changed with recent oncologic advances.

OBJECTIVE: We conducted an analysis of the clinical and radiographic features, etiologies, treatments, and outcomes of patients with SDHs and cancer.

METHODS: We retrospectively identified patients at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center with a diagnosis of SDH and cancer from January 2000 to December 2007. We analyzed clinical and radiographic data; multivariate Cox regression was performed to associate tumor type and etiology with survival outcome.

RESULTS: There were 90 patients; 66 had acute or subacute SDHs, 9 chronic SDHs, 11 subdural hygromas, and 4 SDHs of unclear chronicity. Gliomas (16%), leukemias (14%), and prostate cancers (14%) were the most frequent malignancies. The most common single etiologies were coagulopathy (27%) and trauma (11%). SDHs with multiple etiologies occurred in 25 patients (28%) with the combination of coagulopathy and trauma occurring in 15. Sixty patients (67%) were either completely or partially independent after SDH, and 1-year survival was 43% (95% confidence interval: 32.1-52.9). Overall survival correlated with etiology (P , .0001) and whether the malignancy was in remission (P = .005). Trauma was associated with the best overall survival compared with coagulopathy.

CONCLUSION: Leukemia and prostate cancer are the most common systemic cancers associated with SDH, and gliomas may predispose to SDH more often than previously recognized. Coagulopathy is common and associated with the worst outcome, but many patients experience good functional outcome and survival.

Role of Cancer Stem Cells in Spine Tumors

Neurosurgery 71:117–125, 2012 DOI: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e3182532e71

The management of spinal column tumors continues to be a challenge for clinicians. The mechanisms of tumor recurrence after surgical intervention as well as resistance to radiation and chemotherapy continue to be elucidated. Furthermore, the pathophysiology of metastatic spread remains an area of active investigation.

There is a growing body of evidence pointing to the existence of a subset of tumor cells with high tumorigenic potential in many spine cancers that exhibit characteristics similar to those of stem cells. The ability to self-renew and differentiate into multiple lineages is the hallmark of stem cells, and tumor cells that exhibit these characteristics have been described as cancer stem cells (CSCs).

The mechanisms that allow nonmalignant stem cells to promote normal developmental programming by way of enhanced proliferation, promotion of angiogenesis, and increased motility may be used by CSCs to fuel carcinogenesis.

The purpose of this review is to discuss what is known about the role of CSCs in tumors of the osseous spine. First, this article reviews the fundamental concepts critical to understanding the role of CSCs with respect to chemoresistance, radioresistance, and metastatic disease. This discussion is followed by a review of what is known about the role of CSCs in the most common primary tumors of the osseous spine.