Computational fluid dynamic analysis of the initiation of cerebral aneurysms

J Neurosurg 137:335–343, 2022

Relationships between aneurysm initiation and hemodynamic factors remain unclear since de novo aneurysms are rarely observed. Most previous computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies have used artificially reproduced vessel geometries before aneurysm initiation for analysis. In this study, the authors investigated the hemodynamic factors related to aneurysm initiation by using angiographic images in patients with cerebral aneurysms taken before and after an aneurysm formation.

METHODS The authors identified 10 cases of de novo aneurysms in patients who underwent follow-up examinations for existing cerebral aneurysms located at a different vessel. The authors then reconstructed the vessel geometry from the images that were taken before aneurysm initiation. In addition, 34 arterial locations without aneurysms were selected as control cases. Hemodynamic parameters acting on the arterial walls were calculated by CFD analysis.

RESULTS In all de novo cases, the aneurysmal initiation area corresponded to the highest wall shear stress divergence (WSSD point), which indicated that there was a strong tensile force on the arterial wall at the initiation area. The other previously reported parameters did not show such correlations. Additionally, the pressure loss coefficient (PLc) was statistically significantly higher in the de novo cases (p < 0.01). The blood flow impact on the bifurcation apex, or the secondary flow accompanied by vortices, resulted in high tensile forces and high total pressure loss acting on the vessel wall.

CONCLUSIONS Aneurysm initiation may be more likely in an area where both tensile forces acting on the vessel wall and total pressure loss are large.

Low-Dose Intravenous Heparin Infusion After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage is Associated With Decreased Risk of Delayed Neurological Deficit and Cerebral Infarction

Neurosurgery 88 (3)2021: 523–530

Patients who survive aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) are at risk for delayed neurological deficits (DND) and cerebral infarction. In this exploratory cohort comparison analysis, we compared in-hospital outcomes of aSAH patients administered a low-dose intravenous heparin (LDIVH) infusion (12 U/kg/h) vs those administered standard subcutaneous heparin (SQH) prophylaxis for deep vein thrombosis (DVT; 5000 U, 3 × daily).

OBJECTIVE: To assess the safety and efficacy of LDIVH in aSAH patients.

METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 556 consecutive cases of aSAH patients whose aneurysm was secured by clipping or coiling at a single institution over a 10-yr period, including 233 administered the LDIVH protocol and 323 administered the SQH protocol. Radiological and outcome datawere compared between the 2 cohorts using multivariable logistic regression and propensity score-based inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW).

RESULTS: The unadjusted rate of cerebral infarction in the LDIVH cohort was half that in SQH cohort (9 vs 18%; P = .004). Multivariable logistic regression showed that patients in the LDIVH cohort were significantly less likely than those in the SQH cohort to have DND (odds ratio (OR) 0.53 [95% CI: 0.33, 0.85]) or cerebral infarction (OR 0.40 [95% CI: 0.23, 0.71]). Analysis following IPTWshowed similar results. Rates of hemorrhagic complications, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and DVT were not different between cohorts.

CONCLUSION: This cohort comparison analysis suggests that LDIVH infusion may favorably influence the outcome of patients after aSAH. Prospective studies are required to further assess the benefit of LDIVH infusion in patients with aSAH.

Lateral transorbital approach: an alternative microsurgical route for supratentorial cerebral aneurysms

J Neurosurg 134:72–83, 2021

Transorbital approaches for neurosurgery have recently attracted attention and several anatomical studies have aimed to improve these techniques, but significant deficiencies in clinical practice remain, especially for aneurysm surgery. The authors present an alternative microsurgical route and the results of an analysis of patients with intracranial aneurysms who underwent a lateral transorbital approach (LTOA) using lateral orbito-zygoma-sphenotomy (LOZYGS).

METHODS The clinical and surgical results of a series of 54 consecutive patients with 1 or more aneurysms who underwent surgery via LTOA are reported. A lateral orbitotomy was performed after making a 3-cm skin incision parallel to the lateral orbital rim. A second bone flap, which included the zygoma and sphenoid bones that form the lateral orbital wall, was removed. The lesser sphenoid wing, including the anterior clinoid process, was fully drilled, except in cases of middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms. Cisternal dissection was performed using the classic microsurgical technique starting from the proximal Sylvian fissure and carotid cistern. After the aneurysm was clipped following microsurgical principles, the dura mater was closed in a watertight fashion and 2-piece bone reconstruction was achieved.

RESULTS Sixty aneurysms in 54 patients were clipped using the LOZYGS route. Twenty-one aneurysms were located on the MCA, 30 on the anterior communicating artery, 8 on the internal carotid artery, and 1 at the apex of the basilar artery. The unruptured-to-ruptured aneurysm ratio was 17:43. The operative field was moved to the orbit using the LTOA to avoid interference by bone and muscle tissues. Early proximal control was achieved using a short working distance and direct exposure of the base of the cerebrum, without any requirement for retraction. Because different view angles and surgical corridors were used, no segment of the aneurysm or the parent artery remained unexposed. Therefore, the introduction of additional tools was not required.

CONCLUSIONS The LTOA allowed enhanced broad-perspective exposure of the operative field, early proximal control, and satisfactory surgical freedom. This alternative surgical approach safely exposed the target area and the operative field. The LOZYGS route is safe and effective for the LTOA and microsurgical clipping of anterior circulation aneurysms. According to the authors’ surgical experience and clinical experience, the LTOA can be considered an alternative surgical route to supratentorial aneurysm surgery.

Lateral supra-cerebellar infra-tentorial approach for P2-P3 junction cerebral aneurysms

Acta Neurochirurgica (2020) 162:2767–2772

P2-P3 junction aneurysms are challenging to treat surgically because of their frequent complex morphology and their location deep in close proximity to the midbrain. The sub-temporal route requires significant retraction of the temporal lobe in addition to potential injury to the vein of Labbe.

We describe the technique for treating such aneurysms via a lateral supra-cerebellar infratentorial (LSCIT) approach, which eliminates manipulation of the temporal lobe.

Method Cadaveric dissection provided comprehensive understanding of relevant anatomy. Intraoperative video shows clipping of the aneurysm using a LSCIT approach.

Conclusion LSCIT approach allows safe clipping of P2-P3 aneurysms with minimal brain manipulation.

The impact of statin therapy after surgical or endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysms

J Neurosurg 133:182–189, 2020

Cerebral aneurysms represent the most common cause of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage. Statins are lipid-lowering agents that may expert multiple pleiotropic vascular protective effects. The authors hypothesized that statin therapy after coil embolization or surgical clipping of cerebral aneurysms might improve clinical outcomes.

METHODS This was a retrospective cohort study using the National Health Insurance Service–National Sample Cohort Database in Korea. Patients who underwent coil embolization or surgical clipping for cerebral aneurysm between 2002 and 2013 were included. Based on prescription claims, the authors calculated the proportion of days covered (PDC) by statins during follow-up as a marker of statin therapy. The primary outcome was a composite of the development of stroke, myocardial infarction, and all-cause death. Multivariate time-dependent Cox regression analyses were performed.

RESULTS A total of 1381 patients who underwent coil embolization (n = 542) or surgical clipping (n = 839) of cerebral aneurysms were included in this study. During the mean (± SD) follow-up period of 3.83 ± 3.35 years, 335 (24.3%) patients experienced the primary outcome. Adjustments were performed for sex, age (as a continuous variable), treatment modality, aneurysm rupture status (ruptured or unruptured aneurysm), hypertension, diabetes mellitus, household income level, and prior history of ischemic stroke or intracerebral hemorrhage as time-independent variables and statin therapy during follow-up as a time-dependent variable. Consistent statin therapy (PDC > 80%) was significantly associated with a lower risk of the primary outcome (adjusted hazard ratio 0.34, 95% CI 0.14–0.85).

CONCLUSIONS Consistent statin therapy was significantly associated with better prognosis after coil embolization or surgical clipping of cerebral aneurysms.

 

Overview of Different Flow Diverters and Flow Dynamics

Neurosurgery 86:S21–S34, 2020

Over the past decade, flow diverter technology for endocranial aneurysms has seen rapid evolution, with the development of new devices quickly outpacing the clinical evidence base. However, flow diversion has not yet been directly compared to surgical aneurysm clipping or other endovascular procedures. The oldest and most well-studied device is the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED; Medtronic), recently transitioned to the Pipeline Flex (Medtronic), which still has sparse data regarding outcomes.

To date, other flow diverting devices have not been shown to outperform the PED, although information comes primarily from retrospective studies with short follow-up, which are not always comparable.

Because of this lack of high-quality outcome data, no reliable recommendations can be made for choosing among flow diversion devices yet. Moreover, the decision to proceed with flow diversion should be individualized to each patient.

In this work, we wish to provide a comprehensive overview of the technical specifications of all flow diverter devices currently available, accompanied by a succinct description of the evidence base surrounding each device.

Outcomes of Retreatment for Intracranial Aneurysms—A Meta-Analysis

Neurosurgery. 2019 Dec 1;85(6):750-761

Long-term results from the International Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Trial (ISAT) and Barrow Ruptured Aneurysm Trial (BRAT) indicate considerably higher retreatment rates for aneurysms treated with coiling compared to clipping, but do not report the outcome of retreatment.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate retreatment related outcomes.

METHODS: A meta-analysis in accordance with PRISMA guidelines was conducted using Medline search engines PubMed and EMBASE to identify articles describing outcomes after retreatment for intracranial aneurysms. Pooled prevalence rates for complete occlusion rate and mortality were calculated. Outcomes of different treatment and retreatment combinations were not compared because of indication bias.

RESULTS: Twenty-five articles that met the inclusion criteria were included in the metaanalysis. Surgery after coiling had a pooled complete occlusion rate of 91.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 87.0-94.1) and a pooled mortality rate of 5.6% (95% CI: 3.7-8.3). Coiling after coiling had a pooled complete occlusion rate of 51.3% (95% CI: 22.1-78.0) and a pooled mortality rate of 0.8% (95% CI: 0.15-3.7). Surgery after surgery did not provide a pooled estimate for complete occlusion as only one study was identified but had a pooled mortality rate of 5.9% (95% CI: 3.1-11.2). Coiling after surgery had a pooled complete occlusion rate of 56.1% (95% CI: 11.4-92.7) and a pooled mortality rate of 9.3% (95% CI: 4.1- 19.9). All pooled incidence rates were produced using random-effect models.

CONCLUSION: Surgical retreatment was associated with a high complete occlusion rate but considerable mortality. Conversely, endovascular retreatment was associated with low mortality but also a low complete occlusion rate.

Indocyanine green fluorescence video angiography reduces vascular injury–related morbidity during micro-neurosurgical clipping of ruptured cerebral aneurysms: a retrospective observational study

Acta Neurochirurgica (2019) 161:2397–2401

Specific procedural complications in aneurysm surgery are broadly related to vascular territory compromise and brain/nerve retraction; vascular complications account for about half of this. Intraoperative indocyanine green video angiography (ICG-VA) provides real-time high spatial resolution imaging of the cerebrovascular architecture, allowing immediate quality assurance of aneurysm occlusion and vessel integrity. The aim of this study was to examine whether the routine use of ICG-VA reduced early procedural complications related to vascular compromise or injury during micro-neurosurgical clipping of ruptured cerebral aneurysms.

Methods Retrospective comparative observational study of 412 adult good-grade (WFNS 1 or 2) SAH patients who had undergone microsurgical clipping without (n = 200, 2001–2004) or with (n = 212, 2009–2015) ICG-VA in a high-volume neurosurgical centre.

Results The ICG-VA group had a significantly lower incidence of procedural vascular complications (7/212; 3.3%) compared with the non-ICG-VA group (19/200; 9.5%) (Fisher’s exact test p = 0.0137).

Conclusions ICG-VA is a straightforward, easy-to-use, intraoperative adjunct which significantly reduces avoidable ‘technical error’ related morbidity.

The biophysical role of hemodynamics in the pathogenesis of cerebral aneurysm formation and rupture

Neurosurg Focus 47 (1):E11, 2019

The pathogenesis of intracranial aneurysms remains complex and multifactorial. While vascular, genetic, and epidemio- logical factors play a role, nascent aneurysm formation is believed to be induced by hemodynamic forces. Hemodynamic stresses and vascular insults lead to additional aneurysm and vessel remodeling. Advanced imaging techniques allow us to better define the roles of aneurysm and vessel morphology and hemodynamic parameters, such as wall shear stress, oscillatory shear index, and patterns of flow on aneurysm formation, growth, and rupture. While a complete understand- ing of the interplay between these hemodynamic variables remains elusive, the authors review the efforts that have been made over the past several decades in an attempt to elucidate the physical and biological interactions that govern aneurysm pathophysiology. Furthermore, the current clinical utility of hemodynamics in predicting aneurysm rupture is discussed.

Universal fluorescence module for intraoperative fluorescein angiography

Acta Neurochirurgica (2019) 161:1343–1348

Even in specialized centers, suboptimal aneurysm clipping can be as high as 12%. Intraoperative fluorescence angiography with indocyanine green and, more recently, fluorescein sodium have been shown to be a good method for intraop- erative flow assessment. However, the cost with the apparatus it entails limits its widespread use.

We have developed a low-cost universal fluorescence module (FM) designed to visualize fluorescein and perform intraoperative angiography. The purpose of this paper is to describe this device as well as to present our early experience with its use in the treatment of cerebral aneurysms.

Method A FM was designed and built using a cyan-blue narrow bandpass (460 to 490 nm) excitation filter and a yellow-orange longpass (blocking wavelengths under 520 nm) barrier filter mounted on a 3D-printed holding tray in a specific disposition to perfectly match the light source and the objective lens of the surgical microscope. It allowed switching from white light to fluorescence mode in a simple and sterile fashion. Its perfect attachment to the microscope was possible by reusing the lens fittings extracted from used original drape sets that would otherwise be discarded. Four patients underwent aneurysm clipping using the FM at two institutions from April to September 2018.

Results A bright green fluorescence against a dark background was observed after intravenous bolus of fluorescein. Blood vessels became obviously distinct from non-contrast-filled structures such as clipped aneurysms and the brain. Vascular anatomy could be appreciated without any distortion, including perforating arteries.

Conclusions Intraoperative fluorescence angiography was successfully performed with the use of this universal FM after intra- venous injection of fluorescein sodium. This simple and low-cost device may be useful in resource-limited centers, where other sorts of intraoperative angiography are not available.

Clipping aneurysms improves outcomes for patients undergoing coiling

J Neurosurg 130:1491–1497, 2019

Most intracranial aneurysms are now treated by endovascular rather than by microsurgical procedures. There is evidence to demonstrate superior outcomes for patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) treated by endovascular techniques. However, some cases continue to require microsurgery. The authors have examined the relationship between the number of aneurysms treated by microsurgery and outcome for patients undergoing treatment for aSAH at neurosurgical centers in England.

METHODS The Neurosurgical National Audit Programme (NNAP) database was used to identify aSAH cases and to provide associated 30-day mortality rates for each of the 24 neurosurgical centers in England. Data were compared for association by regression analysis using the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient and any associations were tested for statistical significance using the one-way ANOVA test. The NNAP data were validated utilizing a second, independent registry: the British Neurovascular Group’s (BNVG) National Subarachnoid Haemorrhage Database.

RESULTS Increasing numbers of microsurgical cases in a center are associated with lower 30-day mortality rates for all patients treated for aSAH, irrespective of treatment modality (Pearson r = 0.42, p = 0.04), and for patients treated for aSAH by endovascular procedures (Pearson r = 0.42, p = 0.04). The correlations are stronger if all (elective and acute) microsurgical cases are compared with outcome. The BNVG data validated the NNAP data set for patients with aSAH.

CONCLUSIONS There is a statistically significant association between local microsurgical activity and center outcomes for patients with aSAH, even for patients treated endovascularly. The authors postulate that the number of microsurgical cases performed may be a surrogate indicator of closer neurosurgical involvement in the overall management of neurovascular patients and of optimal case selection.

Hemorrhagic burden in poor-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

Acta Neurochirurgica (2019) 161:791–797

Volumetric assessment of aneurysmal bleeding has been evaluated in few studies and emerged as a promising outcome predictor. There is a lack of studies evaluating its impact in the poor-grade population.

Methods Retrospective review of 63 consecutive poor-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) patients, defined as grade IV and V according to theWorld Federation of Neurological Surgeons (WFNS) classifications. Global intracranial bleeding volume was calculated with its subarachnoid, intracerebral (ICH), and intraventricular (IVH) portions by means of analytical software. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed in order to identify independent predictors of outcome. Good outcome was defined as modified Rankin Scale (mRS) 0–2 and mortality as mRS 6. The cutoff values of bleeding volumes were derived by receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis.

Results Mean follow-up was of 12.5 (± 1.5) months. Thirty (47.7%) patients achieved good outcome, whereas 19 (30.2) patients out of 63 died. Global intracranial bleeding resulted as an independent predictor of good outcome (cutoff 24 mL). Furthermore, ICH relative percentage of global volume (10% of total) and pure SAH (64% of total) emerged respectively as independent predictors of worsened and improved outcome. Global bleeding volume (cutoff 51 mL) along with global cerebral edema showed to independently predict mortality in the examined poor-grade aSAH population.

Conclusions Volumetric assessment of aneurysmal bleeding has the potential for identifying cutoff values that independently predict outcome. Further insights into the relative importance of different bleeding volumes may be implicated in better tailoring the management of this dismal aSAH population.

Detection rates and sites of unruptured intracranial aneurysms according to sex and age: an analysis of MR angiography–based brain examinations of 4070 healthy Japanese adults

J Neurosurg 130:573–578, 2019

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the detection rate and occurrence site according to patient sex and age of unruptured intracranial aneurysms detected through MRI and MR angiography (MRA).

METHODS A total of 4070 healthy adults 22 years or older (mean age [± SD] 50.6 ± 11.0 years; 41.9% women) who underwent a brain examination known as “Brain Dock” in the central Tokyo area between April 2014 and March 2015 were checked for unruptured saccular aneurysm using 3-T MRI/MRA. The following types of cases were excluded: 1) protrusions with a maximum diameter < 2 mm at locations other than arterial bifurcations, 2) conical protrusions at arterial bifurcations with a diameter < 3 mm, and 3) cases of suspected aneurysms with unclear imaging of the involved artery. When an aneurysm was definitively diagnosed, the case was included in the aneurysm group. The authors also investigated the relationship between aneurysm occurrence and risk factors (age, sex, smoking history, hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia).

RESULTS One hundred eighty-eight aneurysms were identified in 176 individuals (detection rate 4.32%), with the detection rate for women being significantly higher (6.2% vs 3.0%, p < 0.001). The average age in the aneurysm group was significantly higher than in the patients in whom aneurysms were not detected (53.0 ± 11.1 vs 50.5 ± 11.0 years). The detection rate tended to increase with age. The detection rates were 3.6% for people in their 30s, 3.5% for those in their 40s, 4.1% for those in their 50s, 6.9% for those in their 60s, and 6.8% for those in their 70s. Excluding persons in their 20s and 80s—age groups in which no aneurysms were discovered—the detection rate in women was higher in all age ranges. Of the individuals with aneurysms, 12 (6.81%) had multiple cerebral aneurysms; no sex difference was observed with respect to the prevalence of multiple aneurysms. Regarding aneurysm size, 2.0–2.9 mm was the most common size range, with 87 occurrences (46.3%), followed by 3.0–3.9 mm (67 [35.6%]) and 4.0–4.9 mm (20 [10.6%]). The largest aneurysm was 13 mm. Regarding location, the internal carotid artery (ICA) was the most common aneurysm site, with 148 (78.7%) occurrences. Within the ICA, C1 was the site of 46 aneurysms (24.5%); C2, 57 (30.3%); and C3, 29 (15.4%). The aneurysm detection rates for C2, C3, and C4 were 2.23%, 1.23%, and 0.64%, respectively, for women and 0.68%, 0.34%, and 0.21%, respectively, for men; ICA aneurysms were significantly more common in women than in men (5.27% vs 2.20%, p < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that age (p < 0.001, OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01–1.04), female sex (p < 0.001, OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.64–3.16), and smoking history (p = 0.011, OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.10–2.11) were significant risk factors for aneurysm occurrence

CONCLUSIONS In this study, both female sex and older age were independently associated with an increased aneurysm detection rate. Aneurysms were most common in the ICA, and the frequency of aneurysms in ICA sites was markedly higher in women.

Neck Remnants and the Risk of Aneurysm Rupture After Endovascular TreatmentWith Coiling or Stent-Assisted Coiling

Neurosurgery 84:421–427, 2019

Neck remnants are not uncommon after endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysms. Critics of endovascular treatments for cerebral aneurysms cite neck remnants as evidence in favor of microsurgical clipping. However, studies have failed to evaluate the true clinical significance of aneurysm neck remnants following endovascular therapies.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical significance of residual aneurysm necks and to determine the rate of subsequent rupture following coiling or stent-assisted coiling of cerebral aneurysms.

METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 1292 aneurysm cases that underwent endovascular treatment at 4 institutions. Aneurysms treated by primary coiling or stent-assisted coiling were included in the study; those treated by flow diversion were excluded Aneurysms with residual filling (i.e., Raymond–Roy Occlusion Classification II, neck remnant; or III, residual aneurysm filling) were assessed for their risk of subsequent rupture.

RESULTS: A total of 626 aneurysms were identified as having residual filling immediately posttreatment. Of these, 13 aneurysms (2.1%) ruptured during the follow-up period (mean 7.3 mo; range 1-84 mo). Eleven of the 13 (84.6%) were ruptured at presentation. Rupture at presentation, the size of the aneurysm, and the increasing age of the patient were predictive of posttreatment rupture.

CONCLUSION: We found that unruptured aneurysms with residual necks following endovascular treatment posed a very low risk of rupture (0.6%). However, patients presenting with ruptured aneurysms had a higher risk of rerupture from a neck remnant (3.4%). These results highlight the importance of achieving complete angiographic occlusion of ruptured aneurysms.

External validation of cerebral aneurysm rupture probability model with data from two patient cohorts

Acta Neurochirurgica (2018) 160:2425–2434

For a treatment decision of unruptured cerebral aneurysms, physicians and patients need to weigh the risk of treatment against the risk of hemorrhagic stroke caused by aneurysm rupture. The aim of this study was to externally evaluate a recently developed statistical aneurysm rupture probability model, which could potentially support such treatment decisions.

Methods Segmented image data and patient information obtained from two patient cohorts including 203 patients with 249 aneurysms were used for patient-specific computational fluid dynamics simulations and subsequent evaluation of the statistical model in terms of accuracy, discrimination, and goodness of fit. The model’s performance was further compared to a similaritybased approach for rupture assessment by identifying aneurysms in the training cohort that were similar in terms of hemodynamics and shape compared to a given aneurysm from the external cohorts.

Results When applied to the external data, the model achieved a good discrimination and goodness of fit (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve AUC = 0.82), which was only slightly reduced compared to the optimism-corrected AUC in the training population (AUC = 0.84). The accuracy metrics indicated a small decrease in accuracy compared to the training data (misclassification error of 0.24 vs. 0.21). The model’s prediction accuracy was improved when combined with the similarity approach (misclassification error of 0.14).

Conclusions The model’s performance measures indicated a good generalizability for data acquired at different clinical institutions. Combining the model-based and similarity-based approach could further improve the assessment and interpretation of new cases, demonstrating its potential use for clinical risk assessment.

Surgical Clipping of Previously Ruptured, Coiled Aneurysms: Outcome Assessment in 53 Patients

World Neurosurg. (2018) 120:e203-e211

Occasionally, previously coiled aneurysms will require secondary treatment with surgical clipping, representing a more complicated aneurysm to treat than the naïve aneurysm. Patients who initially presented with a ruptured aneurysm may pose an even riskier group to treat than those with unruptured previously coiled aneurysms, given their potentially higher risk for rerupture. The objective of this study was to assess the clinical outcomes of patients who undergo microsurgical clipping of ruptured previously coiled cerebral aneurysms. In addition, we present a thorough review of the literature.

METHODS: A total of 53 patients from a single institution who initially presented with a subarachnoid hemorrhage and underwent surgical clipping of a previously coiled aneurysm between December 1997 and December 2014 were studied. Clinical features, hospital course, and preoperative and most recent functional status (Glasgow Outcome Scale score) were reviewed retrospectively.

RESULTS: The mean time interval from coiling to clipping was 2.6 years, and mean follow-up was 5.5 years (range, 0.1e14.7 years). Five patients (9.8%) presented with rebleed prior to clipping. Most patients (79.3%, 42/53) experienced good neurologic outcomes. Most showed no change (81%, 43/53) or improvement (13%, 7/53) in functional status after microsurgical clipping. One patient (2%) deteriorated clinically, and there were 2 mortalities (4%).

CONCLUSIONS: Microsurgical clipping of previously ruptured, coiled aneurysms is a promising treatment method with favorable clinical outcomes

Head-up display may facilitate safe keyhole surgery for cerebral aneurysm clipping

J Neurosurg 129:883–889, 2018

The head-up display (HUD) is a modern technology that projects images or numeric information directly into the observer’s sight line. Surgeons will no longer need to look away from the surgical view using the HUD system to confirm the preoperative or navigation image. The present study investigated the usefulness of the HUD system for performing cerebral aneurysm clipping surgeries.

METHODS Thirty-five patients underwent clipping surgery, including 20 keyhole surgeries for unruptured cerebral aneurysm, using the HUD system. Image information of structures such as the skull, cerebral vasculature, and aneurysm was integrated by the navigation software and linked with the positional coordinates of the microscope field of view. “Image injection” allowed visualization of the main structures that were concurrently tracked by the navigation image, and “closed shutter” switched the microscope field of view and the pointer image of the 3D brain image.

RESULTS The HUD system was effective for estimating the location and 3D anatomy of the aneurysm before craniotomy or dural opening in most patients. Scheduled keyhole minicraniotomy and opening of the sylvian fissure or partial rectal gyrus resection were performed on the optimized location with a minimum size in 20 patients.

CONCLUSIONS The HUD images superimposed on the microscope field of view were remarkably useful for less invasive and more safe aneurysm clipping and, in particular, keyhole clipping.

 

Development of a statistical model for discrimination of rupture status in posterior communicating artery aneurysms

Acta Neurochirurgica (2018) 160:1643–1652

Intracranial aneurysms at the posterior communicating artery (PCOM) are known to have high rupture rates compared to other locations. We developed and internally validated a statistical model discriminating between ruptured and unruptured PCOM aneurysms based on hemodynamic and geometric parameters, angio-architectures, and patient age with the objective of its future use for aneurysm risk assessment.

Methods A total of 289 PCOM aneurysms in 272 patients modeled with image-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) were used to construct statistical models using logistic group lasso regression. These models were evaluated with respect to discrimination power and goodness of fit using tenfold nested cross-validation and a split-sample approach to mimic external validation.

Results The final model retained maximum and minimum wall shear stress (WSS), mean parent artery WSS, maximum and minimum oscillatory shear index, shear concentration index, and aneurysm peak flow velocity, along with aneurysm height and width, bulge location, non-sphericity index, mean Gaussian curvature, angio-architecture type, and patient age. The corresponding area under the curve (AUC) was 0.8359. When omitting data from each of the three largest contributing hospitals in turn, and applying the corresponding model on the left-out data, the AUCs were 0.7507, 0.7081, and 0.5842, respectively.

Conclusions Statistical models based on a combination of patient age, angio-architecture, hemodynamics, and geometric characteristics can discriminate between ruptured and unruptured PCOM aneurysms with an AUC of 84%. It is important to include data from different hospitals to create models of aneurysm rupture that are valid across hospital populations.

Accuracy in Identifying the Source of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in the Setting of Multiple Intracranial Aneurysms

Neurosurgery 83:62–68, 2018

Subarachnoid hemorrhage cases with multiple cerebral aneurysms frequently demonstrate a hemorrhage pattern that does not definitively delineate the source aneurysm. In these cases, rupture site is ascertained from angiographic features of the aneurysm such as size, morphology, and location.

OBJECTIVE: To examine the frequency with which such features lead to misidentification of the ruptured aneurysm.

METHODS : Records of patients who underwent surgical clipping of a ruptured aneurysm at our institution between 2004 and 2014 and had multiple aneurysms were retrospectively reviewed. A blinded neuroendovascular surgeon provided the rupture source based on the initial head computed tomography scans and digital subtraction angiography images. Operative reports were then assessed to confirm or refute the imaging-based determination of the rupture source.

RESULTS: One hundred fifty-one patients had multiple aneurysms. Seventy-one patients had definitive hemorrhage patterns on initial computed tomography scans and 80 patients had nondefinitive hemorrhage patterns. Thirteen (16.2%) of the cases with nondefinitive hemorrhage patterns had discordance between the imaging-based determination of the rupture source and intraoperative findings of the true ruptured aneurysm, yielding an imperfect positive predictive value of 83.8%. Of all multiple aneurysm cases with subarachnoid hemorrhage treated by surgical or endovascular means at our institution, 4.3% (13 of 303) were misidentified.

CONCLUSION: Morphological features cannot reliably be used to determine rupture site in cases with nondefinitive subarachnoid hemorrhage patterns. Microsurgical clipping, confirming obliteration of the ruptured lesion, may be preferentially indicated in these patients unless, alternatively, all lesions can be contemporaneously and safely treatedwith endovascular embolization.

Accuracy of 320-detector row nonsubtracted and subtracted volume CT angiography in evaluating small cerebral aneurysms

J Neurosurg 127:725–731, 2017

The study aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of 320-detector row nonsubtracted and subtracted volume CT angiography (VCTA) in detecting small cerebral aneurysms (< 3 mm) compared with 3D digital subtraction angiography (3D DSA).

METHODS Six hundred sixty-two patients underwent 320-detector row VCTA and 3D DSA for suspected cerebral aneurysms. Five neuroradiologists independently reviewed VCTA and 3D DSA images. The 3D DSA was considered the reference standard, and the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of nonsubtracted and subtracted VCTA in depicting small aneurysms were analyzed. A p value < 0.05 was considered a significant difference.

RESULTS According to 3D DSA images, 98 small cerebral aneurysms were identified in 90 of 662 patients. Nonsubtracted VCTA depicted 90 small aneurysms. Ten small aneurysms were missed, and 2 small aneurysms were misdiagnosed. The missed small aneurysms were located almost in the internal carotid artery, near bone tissue. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of nonsubtracted VCTA in depicting small aneurysms were 89.8%, 99.2%, and 96.5%, respectively, on a per-aneurysm basis. Subtracted VCTA depicted 97 small aneurysms. Three small aneurysms were missed, and 2 small aneurysms were misdiagnosed. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of subtracted VCTA in depicting small aneurysms were 96.9%, 99.2%, and 98.6%, respectively, on a per-aneurysm basis. There was no difference in accuracy between subtracted VCTA and 3D DSA (p = 1.000). However, nonsubtracted VCTA had significantly less sensitivity than 3D DSA and subtracted VCTA (p = 0.039 and 0.016, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS Subtracted 320-detector row VCTA is sensitive enough to replace 3D DSA in the diagnosis of small cerebral aneurysms (< 3 mm). The accuracy rate of nonsubtracted VCTA was lower than that of subtracted VCTA and 3D DSA, especially in the assessment of small internal carotid artery aneurysms adjacent to the skull base.