Investigation of the usefulness of fluorescein sodium fluorescence in stereotactic brain biopsy

Acta Neurochirurgica (2018) 160:317–324

Intraoperative frozen section assessment, to confirm acquisition of pathological tissues, is used in stereotactic brain biopsy to minimise sampling errors. Limitations include the dependence on dedicated neuro-oncology pathologists and an increase in operative duration. We investigated the use of intraoperative fluorescein sodium, and compared it to frozen section assessment, for confirming pathological tissue samples in the stereotactic biopsy of gadolinium-contrast-enhancing brain lesions.

Methods This prospective observational study consisted of 18 consecutive patients (12 men; median age, 63 years) who underwent stereotactic biopsy of gadolinium-contrast-enhancing brain lesions with intravenous fluorescein sodium administration. Twenty-three specimens were obtained and examined for the presence of fluorescence using a microscope with fluorescence visualisation capability. Positive and negative predictive values were calculated based on the fluorescence status of the biopsy samples with its corresponding intraoperative frozen section and definitive histopathological diagnosis.

Results Nineteen specimens (83%) were fluorescent and four (17%) were non-fluorescent. All 19 fluorescent specimens were confirmed to be lesional on intraoperative frozen section assessment and were suitable for histopathological diagnosis. Three of the non-fluorescent specimens were confirmed to be lesional on intraoperative frozen section assessment. One non-fluorescent specimen was non-diagnostic on frozen section and histological assessments. The positive predictive value was 100% and the negative predictive value was 25%.

Conclusions Fluorescein sodium fluorescence is as accurate as frozen section assessment in confirming sampling of pathological tissue in the stereotactic biopsy of gadolinium-contrast-enhancing brain lesions. Fluorescein sodium fluorescence-guided stereotactic biopsy is a useful addition to the neurosurgical armamentarium.

The Fluoropen: a simple low-cost device to detect intraoperative fluorescein fluorescence in stereotactic needle biopsy of brain tumors

Acta Neurochir (2017) 159:371–375

The use of fluorescein fluorescence-guided stereotactic needle biopsy has been shown to improve diagnostic accuracy and to expedite operative procedure in the stereotactic needle biopsy of high-grade gliomas. We developed a device (Fluoropen) for detecting fluorescence in brain tumor tissues obtained by fluorescein fluorescence-guided stereotactic needle biopsy.

Methods: The Fluoropen is a device consisting of a light source fitted with color filters to create the required emission and visualization wavelengths. The proof-of-concept study consisted of four consecutive patients who underwent fluorescein fluorescence-guided frameless stereotactic biopsy of brain tumor. Each sample was examined for the presence of fluorescence using the Fluoropen and compared with a microscope with fluorescence visualization capability.

Results: A total of six samples were obtained from four stereotactic needle biopsy procedures. Four out of five samples (80%) taken from the contrast-enhancing part of the tumors were shown to be fluorescent under the microscope fitted with fluorescence module and the Fluoropen. One non-contrast enhancing lesion was non-fluorescent using both the microscope fitted with fluorescence module and the Fluoropen. The Fluoropen was shown to have 100% concordance with the microscope fitted with fluorescence module.

Conclusions: The Fluoropen is a low-cost and simple standalone device for the detection of fluorescein fluorescence that can expedite stereotactic needle biopsy by providing instant confirmation of the diagnostic sample and therefore avoid the need for an intraoperative frozen section. In patients with non-contrast enhancing tumors and those who were pre-treated with dexamethasone prior to surgery, fluorescein fluorescence-guided stereotactic needle biopsy will need to be used with caution.

Use of intraoperative fluorescein sodium fluorescence to improve the accuracy of tissue diagnosis during stereotactic needle biopsy of high-grade gliomas

stereotactic biopsy specimen obtained under the YELLOW560

Acta Neurochir (2014) 156:1071–1075

Stereotactic needle biopsy is valuable for tissue diagnosis of suspected high-grade gliomas, but limited by a sampling error that can lead to inappropriate grading of the tumor or failure to provide diagnosis. Increasing the number of biopsy attempts can increase morbidity. The authors designed a protocol to increase safety and efficiency of the procedure.

Methods Six consecutive patients with suspected high-grade gliomas who were not candidates for cytoreductive surgery underwent fluorescein-guided stereotactic needle biopsy. All received an injection of 3 mg/kg fluorescein sodium during anesthesia induction. Samples were obtained and observed under a microscope-integrated fluorescent module. If the initial specimens were fluorescent, the procedure was complete if the pathologist confirmed diagnostic tissue. Additional specimens were obtained only at the pathologist’s request. An independent neuropathologist later analyzed and graded samples for diagnostic value, tumor, and necrosis. This information was correlated to the degree of intraoperative fluorescent signal in biopsy samples.

Results During six biopsy procedures, 26 specimens were obtained: 15 (58 %) fluorescent and 11 (42%) nonfluorescent. All fluorescent specimens contained diagnostic tissue appropriate for tumor grading. Of 11 nonfluorescent specimens, four (36 %) did not contain tumor, three (27 %) contained minor hypercellularity or gliosis, and four (36 %) contained tumor with a high proportion of necrosis. All six tumors were diagnosed as glioblastoma multiforme. The sensitivity and specificity for fluorescein fluorescence was 79 % and 100 %, respectively.

Conclusions Fluorescein fluorescence may improve diagnostic accuracy and expedite stereotactic biopsy procedures.

Stereotactic Brain Biopsy With a Low-Field Intraoperative Magnetic Resonance Imager

Neurosurgery 68[ONS Suppl 1]:ons217–ons224, 2011 DOI: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e31820826c2

Techniques for stereotactic brain biopsy have evolved in parallel with the imaging modalities used to visualize the brain.

OBJECTIVE: To describe our technique for performing stereotactic brain biopsy using a compact, low-field, intraoperative magnetic resonance imager (iMRI).

METHODS: Thirty-three patients underwent stereotactic brain biopsies with the PoleStar N-20 iMRI system (Medtronic Navigation, Louisville, Colorado). Preoperative iMRI scans were obtained for biopsy target identification and trajectory planning. A skull-mounted device (Navigus, Medtronic Navigation) was used to guide an MRI-compatible cannula to the target. An intraoperative image was acquired to confirm accurate cannula placement within the lesion. Serial images were obtained to track cannula movement and to rule out hemorrhage. Frozen sections were obtained in all but 1 patient with a brain abscess.

RESULTS: Diagnostic tissue was obtained in 32 of 33 patients. In all cases, imaging demonstrated cannula placement within the lesion. Histological diagnoses included 22 primary brain tumors and 10 nonneoplastic lesions. In 61% of the cases, initial trajectory was corrected on the basis of the intraoperative scans. In 1 patient, biopsy was nondiagnostic despite accurate cannula placement. No patient suffered a clinically or radiographically significant hemorrhage during or after surgery. There were no intraoperative complications.

CONCLUSION: Stereotactic biopsy with a low-field iMRI is an accurate way to obtain specimens with a high diagnostic yield. This accuracy, combined with the acceptable additional procedural time, may obviate the need for frozen section. The ability to correct biopsy cannula placement during surgery eliminates the chance of misdiagnosis because of faulty targeting, as well as the risks associated with inconclusive frozen sections and ‘‘blind’’ replacement of the cannula.