Anterior trans-frontal endoscopic management of colloid cyst

Endoscopic trans-frontal approach colloid cysts

Neurosurg Rev (2014) 37:235–241

Different management options are available for the treatment of colloid cysts. Goals of those procedures are to achieve a complete resection avoiding potential long-term recurrence along with CSF pathways restoration with minimal morbidity and mortality.

The two main surgical options are endoscopic resection or direct removal by either transfrontal or transcallosal approach. The efficacy of endoscopic technique to achieve gross total colloid cyst excision has been well documented.

In the present study, authors describe a series of 29 patients who underwent surgery by a variation of the standard worldwide implemented endoscopic technique. Using a more anterior approach, it is easier to reach the roof of the cyst, its possible adherences with the tela choroidea, plexus, and the internal cerebral veins. The described approach has shown to be safe, quick, and very effective with a total cyst removal rate of 86.2 %.

Parafalcine and midline arteriovenous malformations: surgical strategy, techniques, and outcomes

J Neurosurg 114:984–993, 2011. DOI: 10.3171/2010.12.JNS101297

Parafalcine arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) have a midline plane in common, but differ in their location (anterior, middle, or posterior) and depth (superficial or deep). Surgical management varies with AVM location and depth in terms of patient position, head position, craniotomy, and surgical approach. This study examined surgical strategies, patient outcomes, and regional factors influencing results.

Methods. Patients with AVMs located on the medial surface of the cerebral hemisphere were identified retrospectively from a consecutive, single-neurosurgeon series that is registered prospectively as part of the UCSF Brain Arteriovenous Malformation Study Project. During a 12-year period, 443 patients with AVMs were treated surgically. Of these 443 patients, 132 (30%) had parafalcine AVMs, which were distributed in zones as follows: superficialanterior, 25 (18.9%); superficial-middle, 26 (19.7%); superficial-posterior, 39 (29.5%); deep-anterior, 25 (18.9%); deep-posterior, 17 (12.9%). Five different surgical strategies were used depending on AVM zone.

Results. Complete AVM resection was achieved in 123 (93.2%) of 132 patients. Overall, neurological condition improved in 74 patients (56.1%) and remained unchanged in 41 patients (31.1%). Neurological condition deteriorated in 12 patients (9.1%), and 5 patients (3.8%) died. Patients with AVMs in the superficial-middle zone had the highest rate of neurological deterioration (26.9%).

Conclusions. Parafalcine AVMs lie on a midline surface that, when exposed with a bilateral craniotomy across the superior sagittal sinus and a wide opening of the interhemispheric fissure, makes them superficial. However, unlike convexity AVMs, which are approached perpendicularly, parafalcine AVMs are approached tangentially. Gravity retraction is useful with deeply located AVMs (those in the deep-anterior and deep-posterior zones), because it widens the interhemispheric fissure and accesses deep arterial feeding vessels from the anterior and posterior cerebral arteries. Surgical risks were increased in the superficial-middle zone, which is likely explained by the proximity of sensorimotor cortex. The authors’ regional classification of parafalcine AVMs may serve as a guide to surgical planning.

Long-term Results of the Neuroendoscopic Management of Colloid Cysts of the Third Ventricle: A Series of 90 Cases

Neurosurgery 68:179–187, 2011 DOI: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e3181ffae71

The endoscopic removal of third ventricular colloid cysts has been developed as an alternative to microsurgical transcortical-transventricular and transcallosal approaches.

OBJECTIVE: To examine the value of endoscopic technique by reviewing the large number of endoscopically treated patients with long-term follow-up in 2 neurosurgical centers.

METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted for all patients admitted for resection of a third ventricular colloid cyst to the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre (Nijmegen, the Netherlands) and the Hoˆ pital Henri Mondor (Paris, France) between 1994 and 2007. Both clinical and radiological symptoms and operative results were evaluated.

RESULTS: Postdischarge clinical follow-up was available for 85 patients over a mean period of 4 years 3 months. Permanent morbidity occurred in 1 patient (persisting preoperative memory deficit). Follow-up imaging of 80 evaluable patients showed that total or nearly total cyst removal was possible in 46 individuals (57.5%). Residual cyst was present in 34 patients (42.5%), and 6 required repeated endoscopic surgery for symptomatic regrowth. Recurrent cysts were mainly seen within the first 2 years after surgery.

CONCLUSION: It is debatable whether the higher numbers of recurrent or residual cysts can be justified by the slightly lower complication rates achieved with endoscopic removal. However, results have been improving over the years. Moreover, the modifications observed on control magnetic resonance images justify the need for regular control imaging for at least the first 2 years postoperatively.