Detection of impending perfusion deficits by intraoperative computed tomography (iCT) in aneurysm surgery of the anterior circulation

Acta Neurochirurgica (2021) 163:3501–3514

The aim of our study was to evaluate the additional benefit of intraoperative computed tomography (iCT), intraoperative computed tomography angiography (iCTA), and intraoperative computed tomography perfusion (iCTP) in the intraoperative detection of impending ischemia to established methods (indocyanine green videoangiography (ICGVA), microDoppler, intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM)) for initiating timely therapeutic measures.

Methods Patients with primary aneurysms of the anterior circulation between October 2016 and December 2019 were included. Data of iCT modalities compared to other techniques (ICGVA, microDoppler, IONM) was recorded with emphasis on resulting operative conclusions leading to inspection of clip position, repositioning, or immediate initiation of conservative treatment strategies. Additional variables analyzed included patient demographics, aneurysm-specific characteristics, and clinical outcome.

Results Of 194 consecutive patients, 93 patients with 100 aneurysms received iCT imaging. While IONM and ICGVA were normal, an altered vessel patency in iCTA was detected in 5 (5.4%) and a mismatch in iCTP in 7 patients (7.5%). Repositioning was considered appropriate in 2 patients (2.2%), where immediate improvement in iCTP could be documented. In a further 5 cases (5.4%), intensified conservative therapy was immediately initiated treating the reduced CBP as clip repositioning was not considered causal. In terms of clinical outcome at last FU, mRS0 was achieved in 85 (91.4%) and mRS1-2 in 7 (7.5%) and remained mRS4 in one patient with SAH (1.1%).

Conclusions Especially iCTP can reveal signs of impending ischemia in selected cases and enable the surgeon to promptly initiate therapeutic measures such as clip repositioning or intraoperative onset of maximum conservative treatment, while established tools might fail to detect those intraoperative pathologic changes.

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