Stereoelectroencephalography: Surgical Methodology, Safety, and Stereotactic Application Accuracy in 500 Procedures

Stereoelectroencephalography___Surgical

Neurosurgery 72:353–366, 2013

Stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) methodology, originally developed by Talairach and Bancaud, is progressively gaining popularity for the presurgical invasive evaluation of drug-resistant epilepsies.

OBJECTIVE: To describe recent SEEG methodological implementations carried out in our center, to evaluate safety, and to analyze in vivo application accuracy in a consecutive series of 500 procedures with a total of 6496 implanted electrodes.

METHODS: Four hundred nineteen procedures were performed with the traditional 2- step surgical workflow, which was modified for the subsequent 81 procedures. The new workflow entailed acquisition of brain 3-dimensional angiography and magnetic resonance imaging in frameless and markerless conditions, advanced multimodal planning, and robot-assisted implantation. Quantitative analysis for in vivo entry point and target point localization error was performed on a sub–data set of 118 procedures (1567 electrodes).

RESULTS: The methodology allowed successful implantation in all cases. Major complication rate was 12 of 500 (2.4%), including 1 death for indirect morbidity. Median entry point localization error was 1.43 mm (interquartile range, 0.91-2.21 mm) with the traditional workflow and 0.78 mm (interquartile range, 0.49-1.08 mm) with the new one (P , 2.2 · 10216). Median target point localization errors were 2.69 mm (interquartile range, 1.89-3.67 mm) and 1.77 mm (interquartile range, 1.25-2.51 mm; P, 2.2 · 10216), respectively.

CONCLUSION: SEEG is a safe and accurate procedure for the invasive assessment of the epileptogenic zone. Traditional Talairach methodology, implemented by multimodal planning and robot-assisted surgery, allows direct electrical recording from superficial and deep-seated brain structures, providing essential information in the most complex cases of drug-resistant epilepsy.