Anterior clinoid meningiomas: surgical results and proposed scoring system to predict visual outcomes

J Neurosurg 140:1295–1304, 2024

The authors report a single-surgeon experience with anterior clinoid meningiomas (ACMs) and propose a novel scoring system to predict visual outcomes based on preoperative risk factors.

METHODS A cohort study of all ACMs that were surgically treated by a single surgeon between 2003 and 2021 was performed. Visual function was assessed by an ophthalmologist pre- and postoperatively. Based on the combination of visual fields and visual acuity, 4 visual grades were described. Favorable visual outcomes were defined as mild visual deficit or intact vision postoperatively. Unfavorable visual outcomes were defined as a severe or moderate visual deficit. Predictors of unfavorable visual outcomes were identified using multivariable logistic regression analysis. A scoring system was then created using the resulting β coefficient. A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to identify a cutoff point on the grading score for stratifying patients at risk for unfavorable visual outcomes.

RESULTS Fifty-two patients met all inclusion criteria. Twenty-five (48%) patients presented with intact vision, and 27 (51%) presented with some visual dysfunction. Postoperative favorable visual outcomes were achieved in 39 patients (75%). Among the 27 patients presenting with visual dysfunction, 14 (52%) experienced improvement after surgery. No new visual deficits were observed among the 25 patients with intact vision at baseline. Nine patients (17%) had a reversible complication. Multivariable analysis showed that severe preoperative visual deficit (OR 13.03, 95% CI 2.64–64.39; p = 0.002), radiographic evidence of optic nerve (ON) encasement (OR 4.20, 95% CI 1.06–16.61; p = 0.04), intraoperative evidence of ON invasion (OR 17.31, 95% CI 2.91–102.86; p = 0.002), an average ganglion cell layer thickness of ≤ 70 µm (OR 21.54, 95% CI 2.94–159.04; p = 0.003), and an average retinal nerve fiber layer thickness of ≤ 80 µm (OR 13.68, 95% CI 1.91–98.00; p = 0.009) were associated with unfavorable visual outcome. The predictive score included the following factors: abnormal optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings, radiographic evidence of ON encasement by the tumor, and severe preoperative visual deficit. A score ≥ 4 of 6 points was demonstrated to be the cutoff associated with unfavorable visual outcome, with a sensitivity of 80%, specificity of 88%, positive predictive value of 80%, negative predictive value of 88%, and area under the curve of 0.847 (95% CI 0.674–1.0; p = 0.003).

CONCLUSIONS The authors have designed a practical and novel scoring system to predict visual outcomes in patients with ACMs. This scoring system may guide preoperative discussions with patients and timely surgical intervention to yield optimal visual function outcomes. Although most patients have excellent neurosurgical outcomes, severe baseline visual deficits, ON encasement, and characteristic OCT abnormalities are associated with unfavorable visual function after ACM resection.