A modern approach to olfactory groove meningiomas

J Neurosurg 140:1215–1222, 2024

Management of olfactory groove meningiomas (OGMs) has changed significantly with the advances in extended endoscopic endonasal approaches (EEAs), which is an excellent approach for patients with anosmia since it allows early devascularization and minimizes retraction on the frontal lobes. Craniotomy is best suited for preservation of olfaction. However, not infrequently, a tumor presents after extending outside the reach of an EEA and a solely transcranial approach would require manipulation and retraction of the frontal lobes. These OGMs may best be treated by a staged EEA-craniotomy approach. In this study the authors’ goal was to present their case series of patients with OGMs treated with their surgical approach algorithm.

METHODS The authors conducted an IRB-approved, nonrandomized historic cohort including all consecutive cases of OGMs treated surgically between 2010 and 2020. Patient demographic information, presenting symptoms, operative details, and complications data were collected. Preoperative and postoperative tumor and T2/FLAIR intensity volumes were calculated using Visage Imaging software.

RESULTS Thirty-one patients with OGMs were treated (14 craniotomy only, 11 EEA only, and 6 staged). There was a significant difference in the distribution of patients presenting with anosmia and visual disturbance by approach. Tumor size was significantly correlated with preoperative vasogenic edema. Gross-total resection was achieved in 90% of cases, with near-total resection occurring twice with EEA and once with a staged approach. T2/FLAIR hyperintensity completely resolved in 90% of cases and rates did not differ by approach. Complication rates were not significantly different by approach and included 4 CSF leaks (p = 0.68).

CONCLUSIONS A staged approach for the management of large OGMs with associated anosmia and significant lateral extension is a safe and effective option for surgical management. Through utilization of the described algorithm, the authors achieved a high rate of GTR, and this strategy may be considered for large OGMs.